Tuesday, April 02, 2024

About new energy technologies and TGD

The motivation for summarizing a general vision of future energy technologies based on dark matter in the TGD sense came from the video of Sabine Hossenfelder titles "Sulfur Better than Hydrogen for Energy Storage, Engineers Find" (see this).

TGD view of dark matter briefly

Number theoretic view of TGD predicts a hierarchy of phases of ordinary matter labelled by the value of effective Planck constant heff=nh0. The simplest assumption is that n is the dimension of algebraic extension of rationals. For a more complex option it is a product of dimensions of two algebraic extensions.

These phases behave like dark matter and would be located at monopole magnetic flux tubes and also electric flux tubes. They would not be galactic dark matter but correspond to the missing baryonic matter whose fraction has been increasing during the cosmological evolution. Galactic dark matter would correspond to the energy of cosmic strings (space-time surfaces with 2-D M4 and CP2 projections). The unavoidable mumber theoretical evolution implies the increase of the number theoretical complexity and therefore increase of n. The larger the value of n the longer the quantum coherence scale of the system.

  1. The predicted huge values of heff assignable to classical gravitational and electric fields of astrophysical objects (see this) mean that weak interactions become as strong as em interactions below the scale up Compton length of weak bosons, which, being proportional to heff, can be as large as cell size.
  2. Large heff phases behave like dark matter: they do not however explain the galactic dark matter, which in the TGD framework is dark energy assignable to cosmic strings (no halo and an automatic prediction of the flat velocity spectrum). Instead, large heff phases solve the missing baryon problem. The density of baryons has decreased in cosmic evolution (having biological evolution as a particular aspect) and the explanation is that evolution as unavoidable increase of algebraic complexity measured by heff has transformed them to heff> h phases at the magnetic bodies (thickened cosmic string world sheets, 4-D objects), in particular those involved with living matter.
  3. The large value of heff has besides number theoretical interpretation (see this) also a geometric interpretation. Space-time surface can be regarded as many-sheeted over both M4 and CP2. In the first case the CP2 coordinates are many-valued functions of M4 coordinates. In the latter case M4 coordinates are many-valued functions of CP2 coordinates so that QFT type description fails. This case is highly interesting in the case of quantum biology. Since a connected space-time surface defines the quantum coherence region, an ensemble of, say, monopole flux tubes can define a quantum coherent region in the latter case: one simply has an analog of Bose-Einstein condensate of monopole flux tubes.
Why dark matter is so excellent for energy storage?

The basic observation is that the energies of quantum states as a function of heff increase. For instance, cyclotron energies are proportional to ℏeff and atomic binding energies are proportional to 1/ℏeff2.

This suggests that the transformation of ordinary particles, say protons or electrons, to their dark variants at the magnetic body (MB) of the system allows to store energy and also information at MB. Due to the large value of heff the dissipation would be slow.

One can imagine a practically endless variety of ways to achieve this.

  1. In the Pollack effect the solar radiation would kick part of the protons of the water molecules to the gravitational MB of Earth. Pollack effect creates negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs) with strange properties suggesting time reversal which is indeed predicted to occur in the TGD Universe if its TGD counterpart corresponds to an ordinary state function reduction.

    In the case of protons the scale of the reduction of the gravitational energy is of order .5 eV if the flux tubes have the scale of Earth radius. For reasonably small heff these flux tubes could be long hydrogen bonds carrying protons. The flux tubes can also carry several protons and one ends up to a proposal for the genetic codes in terms of dark proton triplets. These dark DNA molecules would be paired with ordinary DNA. Same could be true for other basic information molecules.

  2. Dark cyclotron states with energy proportional to ℏgr or ℏeff assignable to long range gravitational fields of Sun and planets and electric fields of Sun and Earth and also smaller systems such as cell and DNA would allow the storage of energy to the energy of dark particles.
  3. Pollack effect generalizes in the TGD framework. Also electrons could be kicked to the gravitational MB: in this case the energy scale would be meV scale (see this and this). Both protonic and electronic energy scales appear in cell biology. Especially interesting systems are charged conductors: their electric bodies could consist of flux tubes which are deformed gravitational magnetic flux tubes carrying dark electrons.

    The proposed realization of genetic code for dark protons generalizes to the case of dark electrons and suggests that genetic code realized in terms of a completely exceptional icosa tetrahedral tessellation of H3 and theref also life is much more general phenomenon than thought hitherto. Therefore both energy and information storage without the problems caused by dissipation would be in question.

  4. In principle, the energy needed to kick the protons to the MB could come from practically any source. For instance, the formation of atomic or molecular bound states would liberate energy stored as energy of dark particles at the MB. This energy would be liberated when dark protons transform to ordinary protons but the system need not transform back to the original energy so that the liberated energy could be used.

    The molecular energy storage in living matter to proteins could rely on this mechanism and could use relatively small values of heff assignable to valence bonds. High energy phosphate bonds could correspond to short term storage, perhaps at the gravitational magnetic body.

"Cold fusion" and energy storage

TGD leads also to a second proposal for energy storage based on another key aspect of number theoretical physics. The polynomials associated with a given extension of rationals are characterized by ramified primes whose spectrum depends on the polynomials. These ramified primes define preferred p-adic number fields characterizing the cognitive aspects of these systems. The p-adic length scale characterizes the mass/energy scale of the system and the prediction is that a given system can appear in several p-adic length scales with different mass/energy scales. TGD suggests the existence of p-adically scaled variants of hadron physics, nuclear physics and even atomic and molecular physics.

The so-called "cold fusion" could rely on dark fusion, as the formation of p-adically scaled atomic nuclei from dark protons which can also transform to dark neutrons by emission of dark weak bosons. This process could produce, not only energy, but also basic elements (see this and this). One would avoid the kicking of nuclei from the bottom of the nuclear energy valley by nuclear collisions requiring high energies.

The dark proton sequences at monopole flux tubes defining dark DNA could be seen as dark nuclei. Their binding energies would scale down and they could form even at low temperatures and in living matter (biofusion for which there is evidence). They could spontaneously transform to ordinary nuclei and liberate practically all ordinary nuclear binding energy. This process could give rise to prestellar evolution heating the system to the ignition temperature of ordinary nuclear fusion. This process could produce elements with atomic numbers even higher than that of iron. Usually supernova explosions are believed to be responsible for this.

Here I have not discussed the possible role of zero energy ontology concerning the transfer of energy: the basic idea is that the change of the arrow of time in the TGD counterpart of ordinary state function reduction makes possible for the system to get energy by emitting negative energy received by the source of energy in an excited state. Analog of population reverted laser would be in question. For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

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