Friday, March 31, 2006

Higgs particle as wormhole contact and weakened form of Equivalence Principle

Quantum classical correspondence has turned out to be the magic tool leading to the a surprisingly detailed understanding of the physics predicted by TGD. I am continuing the updating of TGD forced by the dark matter revolution and newest result relate to a more detailed understanding of particle massivation, the manner how Equivalence Principle is weakened in TGD framework, color confinement, and the variant of Higgs mechanism involved with super-conductivity. The really big surprise was that Higgs particle is nothing but a wormhole contact carrying left handed weak isospin.

1. Higgs as wormhole contact, electro-weak symmetry breaking, the weakening of Equivalence Principle, and color confinement

The proper understanding of the concepts of gauge charges and fluxes and their gravitational counterparts in TGD space-time has taken a lot of efforts. At the fundamental level gauge charges assignable to light-like 3-D elementary particle horizons surrounding a topologically condensed CP2 type extremals can be identified as the quantum numbers assignable to fermionic oscillator operators generating the state associated with horizon identifiable as a parton. Quantum classical correspondence requires that commuting classical gauge charges are quantized and this is expected to be true by the generalized Bohr orbit property of the space-time surface.

There are however non-trivial questions. Do vacuum charge densities give rise to renormalization effects or imply non-conservation so that weak charges would be screened above intermediate boson length scale? Could one assign the non-conservation of gauge fluxes to the wormhole (#) contacts, which are identifiable as pieces of CP2 extremals and for which electro-weak gauge currents are not conserved so that weak gauge fluxes would be non-vanishing but more or less random so that long range correlations would be lost?

It indeed turns that one can understand the non-conservation of weak gauge fluxes in terms of wormhole contacts carrying pairs of right/left handed fermion and left/right handed antifermion having interpretation as Higgs bosons. The average non-conserved light-like gravitational four-momentum of wormhole contact representing Higgs boson can be identified as the inertial four-momentum apart from the sign factor so that one can also understand particle massivation at fundamental level and a connection with p-adic thermodynamics based description of Higgs mechanism emerges. Also a detailed understanding about how Equivalence Principle is weakened in TGD framework emerges.

Also color confinement can be understood using only quantum classical correspondence and general properties of classical color gauge field. Spin glass degeneracy allows to understand the generation of macro-temporal quantum coherence and the same mechanism allows also to understand more quantitatively color confinement by applying unitarity conditions.

2. Dark matter hierarchy and fractal copies of standard model physics

The most dramatic prediction obvious from the beginning but mis-interpreted for about 26 years is the presence of long ranged classical electro-weak and color gauge fields in the length scale of the space-time sheet. The only interpretation consistent with quantum classical correspondence is in terms of a hierarchy of scaled up copies of standard model physics corresponding to p-adic length scale hierarchy and dark matter hierarchy labelled by arbitrarily large values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. Chirality selection in the bio-systems provides direct experimental evidence for this fractal hierarchy of standard model physics.

3. Wormhole contacts, super-conductivity, and biology

Wormhole contacts, feeding gauge fluxes from a given sheet of the 3-space to a larger one, which are a necessary concomitant of the many-sheeted space-time concept. # contacts can be regarded as particles carrying classical charges defined by the gauge fluxes but behaving as extremely tiny dipoles quantum mechanically in the case that gauge charge is conserved. # contacts must be light, which suggests that they can form Bose-Einstein condensates and coherent states. The real surprise (after 27 years of TGD) was that the formation of these rather exotic macroscopic quantum phases could be identified as formation of vacuum expectation value of Higgs field for various scaled up copies of standard model physics. This kind of macroscopic quantum phases could be in a central role in the TGD inspired model for a bio-system as a macroscopic quantum system. Electromagnetically charged # contacts are also possible and would explain the massivation of photons in super-conductors implying that long ranged exotic W boson exchanges play a key role in super-conductivity.

For more details see the chapter General Ideas about Topological Condensation and Evaporation of "Classical Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time".

Sunday, March 26, 2006

Has ultrastrong gravitimagnetism been detected?

Physicists M. Tajmar and C. J. Matos and their collaborators working in ESA (European Satellite Agency) have made an amazing claim of having detected strong gravimagnetism with gravimagnetic field having a magnitude which is about 20 orders of magnitude higher than predicted by General Relativity (see the eprints gr-gc 060302 and gr-gc 060303 in If the findings are replicable they mean a revolution in the science of gravity and, as one might hope, force a long-waited serious reconsideration of the basic assumptions of the dominating super-string approach.

The theory behind the experiments was inspired by the observation that the electron mass deduced from the Thomson magnetic field associated with the rotating super-conductor was slightly higher than its real value although it should be smaller by the binding energy of Cooper pairs. The proposal of authors was that the presence of a gravimagnetic field implies via the Bohr quantization a slightly larger value of Thomson magnetic field in turn implying that the mass deduced from it is larger than the actual mass.

The proposed model explains the presence gravimagnetic field as a breaking of Equivalence Principle: effectively the gravimagnetic fields of superconducting and ordinary matter do no interfere. If this were the case the gravimagnetic field could only provide a description for coordinate forces in the rotating coordinate system. The TGD based interpretation is that these fields are at different space-time sheets and do not thus interfere.

The notion of induced gauge field implies extremely strong constraints between various classical gauge fields so that the presence of magnetic field in rotating super-conductors is expected to imply also the presence of gravimagnetic field. A simple model justifies this expectation. The immense value of the gravimagnetic field can be however understood only if dark matter space-time sheet corresponding to at least k=6th level of the hierarchy carries the gravimagnetic field. This corresponds to the value hbar= λk=6× hbar0≈ 1019×hbar0 for λ≈ 211. By the way, k=6 corresponds to a characteristic time scale of few days for long term memories in the model of long term memories relying on dark matter hierarchy.

The model predicts that the Compton length of ordinary graviphoton is about cell membrane thickness which is the fundamental scale predicted by TGD based model of high Tc superconductivity and order of magnitude for the size of Cooper pair. Graviphoton effective mass inside magnetic flux tubes could be simply due to the same effect as the effective photon mass inside wave cavity, that is due to the transversal zero point motion, and is around 100 eV and thus above thermal threshold at room temperature. The Compton length of dark graviphoton is much longer, of order 1011 meters and of order solar system size. The model gives also concrete grasp about the values of the vacuum parameters (frequency, wave vector, angular momentum) characterizing space-time sheets and also the imbeddings of Schwartshild metric. These almost topological quantum numbers mean the presence of new physics related to topological field quantization.

For more details see the chapter The Relationship Between TGD and GRT" of "Classical Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time".

Matti Pitkanen

Friday, March 24, 2006

Why the number of visible particle families is three?

The assumption that family replication phenomenon for elementary particles has a topological origin reduces the construction of TOE to that of finding a theory which explains the symmetries of the standard model. A simple ten line argument leads to the hypothesis that if space-times are representable as 4-surfaces in H=M4×CP2 this is achieved. The genus of the 2-surface identified as a time=constant cross section of 3-D light-like causal determinant is the topological quantum number in question. Particles are in this picture analogous to shockwaves. This theory extends the conformal symmetries of super string models and predicts the space-time dimension to be four.

During these 27 years I have gone through the entire physics to develop contact of TGD with reality and also extended quantum measurement theory to a quantum theory of consciousness and of living systems. For instance, elementary particle mass spectrum is predicted correctly and the theory predicts a lot of new physics: actually entire hierarchy of scaled down copies of standard model governing the physics of dark matter hierarhcy. Regrettably, the extremely arrogant culture of present day theoretical physics makes for most of my colleagues it impossible to even consider getting familiar with the seven books about TGD and 8 books about TGD inspired theory of consciousness at my homepage providing a thorough documentation about TGD. This despite that an increasing number of theoretical physicists admits that theoretical physics is in a deep crisis and agrees with me about the underlying reasons.

Returning to the topic: the problem is to understand why only three lowest genera g=0,1,2 are light. For long time ago I realized that the hyper-ellipticity is the explanation but it took more than decade to develop the argument to what seems to be the its final and amazingly simple form. The latest simplifications came from the realization that only hyper-ellipticity is needed since g> 2 genera behave in any case like dark matter and can therefore be light. I attach below the abstract of the appropriate chapter.

Genus-generation correspondence is one of the basic ideas of TGD approach. In order to answer various questions concerning the plausibility of the idea, one should know something about the dependence of the elementary particle vacuum functionals on the vibrational degrees of freedom for the boundary component. The construction of the elementary particle vacuum functionals based on Diff invariance, 2-dimensional conformal symmetry, modular invariance plus natural stability requirements indeed leads to an essentially unique form of the vacuum functionals and one can understand why g >2 bosonic families are experimentally absent and why lepton numbers are conserved separately.

An argument suggesting that the number of the light fermion families is three, is developed. The argument goes as follows. Elementary particle vacuum functionals represent bound states of g handles and vanish identically for hyper-elliptic surfaces having g > 2. Since all g≤ 2 surfaces are hyper-elliptic, g ≤ 2 and g > 2 elementary particles cannot appear in same non-vanishing vertex and therefore decouple. The g>2 vacuum functionals not vanishing for hyper-elliptic surfaces represent many particle states of g≤ 2 elementary particle states being thus unstable against the decay to g≤ 2 states. The failure of Z2 conformal symmetry for g>2 elementary particle vacuum functionals could in turn explain why they are heavy: this however not absolutely necessary since these particles would behave like dark matter in any case.

For details see the chapter Elementary Particle Vacuum functionals of "p-Adic Length Scale and Dark Matter Hierarchy" at my re-organized homepage.

Matti Pitkänen