Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The findings of SAFIRE team as support for dark nucleosynthesis

I got from West Johnson a highly interesting link to a video providing a representation about the experimental work done in SAFIRE project (see this) . The motivation is so called Electric Universe model, which I see as unrealistic but the work itself was purely experimental. The mainstream claim, which can be found in Wikipedia is that these scientists are crackpots. To my best understanding this claim is simply an intentional lie. This conclusion is not difficult to make on basis of what I have been experienced during these four decades of TGD. The world view is changing: the old memes defending themselves against new memes desperately and the end justifies the means.

One must of course be extremely cautious. Nuclear transmutations are in air, so to say. It is difficult to believe that TGD would be totally unknown in physics community although there is politically motivated total silence about TGD leading to even comic manifestations. When it begins to look plausible that certain theory might provide a breakthrough at the level of entire world view, it might lead to over-reactions. However, Electric Universe seems to be the theoretical background of SAFIRE project and it is very different vision as compared to TGD.

What SAFIRE group is doing?

  1. SAFIRE team is studying plasma. They are not doing it in garage, a big laboratory is in question, and the researchers have academic credentials.

  2. One has two electrodes - positively charge inner spherical electrode and outer negatively charged spherical anode. This gives rise to a strong electric field. Various gases are in the atmosphere, in particular hydrogen: (see this). Electric discharge is created and electric currents run in the voltage. The situation is like in electrolysis. The temperatures is rather low: around 100 degrees Celsius.

    Note that in cold fusion experiments one has a situation in which hydrogen atoms are absorbed in the cathode. Plasma is created in this kind of situation and one looks what happens by measuring all kinds of observables. One can study what happens at the surface of the anode, one can study the plasma atmosphere say by measuring the voltage and doing optic spectroscopy.

For me the most interesting topic of the talk were nuclear transmutations. "Cold fusion" model based on magnetic flux tubes containing dark matter as heff=n/times h0 phases predicts just what has been observed. It was really amazing to see direct experimental verification of the most radical predictions of TGD: things are going really fast now.
  1. One of the basic predictions of TGD are nuclear transmutations. They observe nuclear transmutations at low temperatures than believed and production of energy. Essentially this is observed also by "cold fusion" experimentalists (see this) and this) .

  2. Energy production was claimed. The ratio of the output power to input power seemed to me incredible. Dark nuclear fusion predicts in optimal situation very large COP but in the "cold fusion" experiments the COP is of order 2-3 typically. If I understood correctly, it was now something like 10 or even more. Maybe I misunderstood.

  3. The experimentalists do not know the mechanism involved and there is no such mechanism in standard model Universe. In TGD Universe it would be the formation of dark proton sequences - dark nuclei - transforming to ordinary nuclei and liberating essentially nuclear binding energy. In fact, also ordinary nuclear reactions would also proceed by the formation of dark nuclei as intermediate states: this replaces tunnelling phenomenon as mechanism in TGD Universe (see this).

  4. It was also claimed that SAFIRE produces by transmutations just those non-organic atoms that are observed in interstellar space. This supports the TGD based proposal that part of elements is formed in interstellar space besides solar cores. If both are involved, the abundances from both should be very similar. If nuclear transmutations involve only the production of dark proton sequences transforming to ordinary nuclei whereas ordinary nucleosynthesis in Sun would involve also the fusions of ordinary nuclei by generating dark nuclei as intermediate states, it is is not clear whether this is the case.

  5. The flux tubes carry also electric fields parallel to them in average sense and charges along them can accelerate to high energies. Second point is that dissipation is very slow due to the large value of heff: this brings a completely new element into the picture. The dark protons and ions at flux tubes can accelerate to very high energies. This would explain for instance the production of very high energy electrons in lightnings: would they accelerate to unexpectedly high energies in the electric field of Earth prevailing also inside flux tubes. By the way, I am still not sure whether gravitational flux tubes can be regarded as monopole flux tubes.

Some further impressions about what was observed at the surface of the anode and at in atmosphere.
  1. Highly interesting were the pictures about the microscopic structures involved. Brought in mind the craters on the surface of Moon (see this). The mechanism would be the same - TGD Universe is fractal. The balls formed by elements were one very interesting detail that should be understood. Why the atoms of given element gathered together in this manner?

    Was the transformation to ordinary nuclei quantum coherent process as I have proposed on basis of large heff and occurred for a bundle of flux tubes simultaneously? - these bundles are actually part of the heff hypothesis. The motivation was the observation of Holmlid that even kaons with masses in 500 MeV range were produced! The production of so large energy quanta is not possible without large scale quantum coherence since nuclear bining energies are in MeV range. heff is proportional the number of flux tubes in bundle (see this) .

  2. The formation of layered structures in the atmosphere around anode formed from double layers was also reported. These bring in mind cell membranes.

  3. So called dark mode was mentioned and the behaviour of electric voltage as function of distance for dark mode and glow mode with visible atmosphere were compared. If I understood correctly, the plasma becomes invisible in dark mode. What could this mean in TGD Universe? Could a phase transition transforming ordinary photons to dark photons be in question? Or is the rate for the transformation of dark photons to ordinary photons for some reason much slower in the dark mode? Could this rate be proportional to heff and could dark mode have larger heff.

In the second part of a talk a proposal for how stars and planets are formed was discussed.
  1. It was essentially TGD view except that they did not talk about monopole flux tubes and tangles along them: the natural possibility is that tangles have structure analogous to that of flux lines of dipole magnetic field.

  2. One of the basic conjectures of TGD is that solar interior was not the only place, where elements are produced. They would be produced by cold fusion everywhere. In planets an the dark currents going along flux tubes to the interior of planets and smaller objects coming from Sun along flux tube network would be in crucial role and give rise to dark nuclear fusion.

  3. Personally I do not see electric universe as a realistic option. Electromagnetic fields in long length scales are essential for the formation of the planets and their chemistry. Gravitational fields are however also central and the the role of gravitational Planck constant assignable to gravitational flux tubes having huge values is in key role in TGD. What makes electromagnetic fields equally important is the existence of monopole magnetic flux tubes and hierarchy of Planck constants. In TGD of course, all fields are expressible in terms of imbedding space-time coordinates as functions of space-time coordinates. Field theorist would say that by general coordinate invariance one has only 4 primary field like variables. In TGD however the notion of classical field is geometrized: space-time geometry determines everything.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, October 21, 2019

What created the craters of Moon and other celestial bodies?

I received from Wes Johnson a link to to a Youtube video of Space News: Electric Universe titled
Our Lightning-Scarred Moon-The Evidence Grows . Very briefly: the basic message is that in case of Moon the basic theories for the formation of craters assuming impacts and volcanism as mechanisms are challenged by a large number of anomalies. It is also claimed that the theory assuming electric discharges - lightnings- as a cause is consistent with the data.

The video was highly interesting and I listened it through several times and the following is my attempt to summarize what I learned and how the the model based on electric lightnings can be formulated in TGD framework. Actually a generalization of a model formulated for what happens in "cold fusion" as dark nuclei transform to ordinary ones, is in question. The formation of craters could involve "cold fusion" and a kind of nuclear explosion.

Consider first what mainstream science says about the formation of craters. Impacts and volcanism would be the basic mechanisms. Most of craters would be however due to impacts.

  1. According to Wikipedia article, the cratering records of very old surfaces, such as Mercury, the Moon, and the southern highlands of Mars, record a period of intense early bombardment in the inner Solar System around 3.9 billion years ago. This is actually hypothesis known as late bombardment hypothesis.

  2. The Wikipedia article about craters in Moon states that most craters in Moon are impact craters. The number of craters in Moon and Mars is many orders of magnitude larger than that of impact craters in Earth. A natural explanation is that geological processes have destroyed the craters and very few from time before 500 million years are known (happens to be the time of Cambrian explosion about which I have talked a lot).

The video argues that the properties of craters of Moon are not consistent with either hypothesis.
  1. The sizes of craters can be enormous. Moon has a gigantic crater which has radius of 25000 km and is 390 km deep. It is one of the largest craters in solar system. Impact theory predicts that there should be material bursted from the mantle to the surface. The material is shocked and melded and there is no material from mantle as volcanic hypothesis would require (data are from Apollo mission).

  2. Why Moon should be so heavily cratered? The hypothesis that so called late heavy bombardment period 4.5-3.8 Gy ago lasting for 20 -200 million years gave rise to the impacts producing the craters. Asteroids have been assumed to have caused the impacts. The video mentions an article claiming that asteroids are not probable cause. The modified hypothesis is that remnants from the formation of planetary system caused the impacts.

  3. The craters are highly circular and can form sequences. There are also smaller craters at the rims of the craters bringing in mind fractal structure: vortices containing vortices containing....

  4. Also very long rilles very different from lava tubes at Earth are found and often start from the circular craters. Rilles have sequences of craters within them. The rilles can be very long, much longer than at Earth: the longest rille is 185 km long. Just the opposite should be the case, since the heat loss in very thin atmosphere should be faster than at Earth with insulating atmopshere so that the rilles should be shorter. There is no rubble at the bottom of rilles as at Earth. The rilles can be directed uphill rather than downhill as in hydrodynamic and lava flows. Rilles also disappear instantaneously. The rilles dwindle suddenly, which does not support the idea that lava flow caused their formation by "eating" the surface material. Rather this, suggest a sheet like structure entering the surface as giving rise to the rille. In the case of the highly circular craters a tube like structure meeting the surface orthogonally suggests itself.

  5. Also glass spheres and chondrules and minerals formed at very high temperatures are found in craters.
    Amusingly, crop circles (see this and this) involve also glass spheres and the model that propose for their formation decades ago would be the same as the model to be discussed for the formation of craters.

  6. The near side of Moon less cratered than far side. There are even hexagonal craters. At Mars there is hemisphere dichotomy with southern hemisphere containing more craters.

Consider the model based on electric discharges argued to be consistent with all data.
  1. Immanuel Velikovsky proposed that cosmic lightnings between planets and Moons created the craters of Moon Mainstream has labelled Velikovski as pseudoscientist. Carl Sagan has written a rather civilized critic of Velikovski's ideas concentrating on content rather than direct personal insults. On basis of his vision Velikovski predicted remanent magnetism in lunar rocks. Nowadays the magnetic field is very weak. This remanent magnetism has been observed.

  2. The crucial discovery by Brian J. Ford was that the electric discharges in lab applied also in industrial processes produce structures very similar to those observed in Moon. The ratio of sizes of largest to smallest craters is the same in Moon and in Mars. In particular, the craters produced in electric discharges are extremely circular. The document claims the electric discharge hypothesis is consistent with all findings about craters in Moon.

  3. R. Juergens studied the rilles appearing in many scales and starting typically from the craters. They were originally called cracks and proposed to be formed by a flow of water or lava across surfaces or beneath the ground. Juergens found however that high energy electric discharge is favoured as a model. Lava and water cannot explain the features of rilless already listed like craters along rilles whereas electric discharges reproduce these features.

If the arguments of the document are true, the proposal must be taken very seriously. It seems incredible that mainstream could neglect so serious anomalies but I have seen this to happen in particle physics for decades. So: suppose that one take the claims seriously. What could be TGD explanation?
  1. Monopole magnetic flux tubes carrying dark matter - perhaps dark nuclei as dark proton sequences is of course what comes first in mind. The flux tubes carrying the dark nuclei as dark cosmic rays could be associated with solar wind and are proposed to form a part of a bigger network allowing cosmic rays to propagate between galacies, stars and smaller astrophysical objects. This would be a cosmic analog of blood circulation (see this and this).

    Flux tubes have flux tubes within flux tubes that mathematical connection between incompressible liquid flow and magnetic field would allow to understanding the various structures as analogos of hydrodynamic trubueles having vortices within vortices fractal structure.

  2. In the collision with ground the dark nucleus formed by dark nucleon sequence nucleons would transform to ordinar nucleons and liberate practically all nuclear binding energy (see this and this) . The event would be like a nuclear explosion and this could explain why the effect is so large. This would be "cold fusion" event in macro scale. "Cold fusion" is known to involve formation of craters in micro scale and it would interesting to see whether the situation are scaled versions of each other.

    Also flux sheets are possible and the long rilles could correspond to these. Flux tubes inside flux tubes and inside flux sheets are possible and could give rise to fractal craters. This explanation would mean that also electric discharges in laboratory give rise to nuclear transmutations producing heavier elements as happens also in "cold fusion". This predictions could be tested in lab.

  3. From Wikipedia article one learns that ores often accompany craters and an interesting question is whether the craters formed in this manner give rise to ores.

  4. What one can say about these monopole flux tubes carrying the dark nuclei to Moon. Most naturally they would be dark flux tubes associated with solar wind bringing cosmic rays. Earth does not have this kind of craters and the number of impact craters is small. The simplest explanation is that geological and atmospheric processes have caused the erosion of these structures. This is proposed as an explanation for the very small number of impact craters in Earh (190), whereas their number in Moon, some planets and their moons is much larger due to the absence of atmosphere.

    It is also possible that reconnections of solar flux tubes with the flux tubes of dark magnetic field associated with the Moon (planet or its moon) is involved and leads to the event! Also the flux tubes of dark magnetic fields of planets and
    Moon (moons of planets) could take place.

One can test the hypothesis is consistent with the TGD inspired version of Expanding Earth model (see this).
  1. The model assumes that Earth had radius, which is half of the recent value before Cambrian explosion and same as the recent radius of Mars. Then came geologically fast expansion (jerk in sequence of fast expansions reducing the value of length scale dependent cosmological constant replacing smooth cosmic expansion in TGD Universe) and the life that had evolved in underground oceans below Earth's surface bursted to the surface and oceans were formed.

  2. The assumption that the situation at Earth was the same as in Mars before the expansion (see this), would explain the finding that the surface of Earth seems to have lost various details like rivers and lakes about 600 million years ago preceding Cambrian explosion about 512 million years ago.

    If the surface of Earth was like the surface of Mars now it would have been full of craters formed by electrical discharges due to the solar wind. This does not kill the model. The presence of erosion due to the emergence of atmosphere and biosphere would explain the absence of these craters at the surface of recent Earth. At the bottom of oceans formed in the expansions they would be automatically absent. Inside tectonic plates signatures of their presence might be found.

  3. The recent Earth is shielded by van Allen belts. If the van Allen belts consisted of dark flux tubes, they should have been present also before expansion and shielded Earth from cosmic rays and solar wind by guiding it to the Earth's interior. This would have brought ions and dark photons into the underground oceansand made possible the evolution of multicelluar life capable of photosynthesis.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

How consciousness does webs its path into the life?


This post is kind of guest post by Savyasanchi Ghose inspired by our discussion relating to life and consciousness. I transformed his doc file to html file and added some after-comments. I strongly encourate to look the video.

About: The following commentary is inspired by a video I saw on Youtube. This video shows an artificial egg hatching experiment, in which a researcher tries to hatch an egg outside the egg, he periodically puts some chemicals into it and then at last life came to it. These are the questions in which I tried to know what is the life and consciousness in this case, what is the ‘notion’ of life here, these questions were posted by me on Facebook and answers were provided by a great Finnish theoretical physicist Matti Pitkänen.

  1. How the life did came to the ‘chicken’?

    The basic question is about what "consciousness" is. If consciousness is indeed a property as materialistic science teaches, the question is about how this property emerged. In TGD framework consciousness is not a property but in the quantum jumps re-creating the sub-universe of self. "Consciousness" is re-creation, not a property: carve this to my tombstone ;-). Therefore one must ask how the first moment of recreation emerged.

    In zero energy ontology (ZEO) self has two parts: the un-exchanging part - core selfness - corresponds to untangled subsystem located at passive boundary of causal diamond (CD) not changed in "small" state function reductions. Changing part of selfness, "Maya" corresponds to the changing part of state at the active boundary of CD changing in each "small" state function reduction having also interpretation as time measurement. Active boundary of CD also drifts farther away from the passive one giving rise to the experience about flow of time and experienced time-clock-time correspondence.

    "Big" state function changes the roles of active and passive boundaries of self and means re-incarnation: self reincarnates with opposite arrow of time. This is the moment of birth. Subsequent "small" state function reductions mean generalized Zeno effect for permanself but the changing part of self in active boundary of CD gives rise to sensory experience, cognition, etc...

    What this re-incarnates self-corresponds is an interesting question: I think the construction of model for solar cycle (what it has to do with consciousness ;-)?) led to a considerable progress here (see this).

    Biological life involves also many other aspects. For instance, information is essential aspect and here adelic physics predicts evolutionary hierarchy in one-one correspondence with extensions of rationales. The dimension of extension which corresponds to effective Planck constants is the measure for the evolutionary level and determines the maximal conscious information content.

    One could require that system replicates. As a matter fact, replication of 3-surface analogous to 3-vertex is Feynman diagrammatic occurs already for elementary particles which are 3-surfaces rather than points in TGD. On could require that the system has some minimum repertoire of quantum programs - standardized mental images- representable as superposition of space-time surfaces that I call preferred extremes. In ZEO quantum states are analogous to these
    quantum programs.

  2. I understand consciousness as a parameter which differentiates between a dead and a living being, not as a capability of an individual to make decisions or to sense, How did it come to the new born chick?

    Here I disagree. Any system can have conscious experiences: it must correspond in ZEO a system, which is de-entangled from the rest of the world at passive boundary of CD. Every living being has conscious experiences. It is a matter of definition whether one regards electron as living. One could define that the extension of rationales involved must be non-trivial or that it has some minimal complexity.

  3. Morphogenetic fields are the fields that guide the developing embryo, how did they arise here? What is the nature of these fields here? And how they differ from the fields present when egg hatch naturally.

    In TGD framework magnetic body (MB) is the intentional agent controlling biological body (egg) and receiving sensory input from it by analogs of EEG in various frequency scales and realized as dark photons with h_eff=n*h_0. MB would be the counterpart of morphogenetic fields. MB has hierarchical structure having parts in in various size scales. Scales include size of Earth and even larger scales. The larger the part the larger h_eff=nh_0 and the higher its "IQ" and the higher the level in control hierarchy. Biological body, the egg, would be near the bottom. Elementary particles are the ultimate bottom.

  4. What happened exactly at t=0 when any movement started inside the gelatin, how this conscious force originated inside there? Are chemicals creating some kind of consciousness? Well if this is so, then why do we deny that consciousness is generated by brain?

    Gelatin is born or rather, reincarnates, in "big" state function reduction. Re-creation without breaking the laws of deterministic physics occurring in every "small" state function reduction is the counterpart of conscious force.

    Conscious experience is in the moment of re-creation, and not a property of some existing entity. One cannot say that consciousness is generated: there is no consciousness. Chemicals are not conscious, nothing is conscious. The re-creation of the quantum states of chemicals gives rise to conscious experience at this particular level of hierarchy.

This was the little article sent by Ghose. Here are some after-comments of mine.
  1. The egg must have been fertilized so that it would have developed to a chicken in any case so that life was already there. Actually everything can be said to be living in TGD Universe, only the level of conscious intelligence varies. The experimenter perhaps made the process of evolution of the embryo faster.

    It is a pity that the text was not in english: I would like to know what the added chemicals were. Also it remained open what the real time scale for the process was.

  2. What I did not emphasize enough is the evolutionary process involved. In TGD picture it corresponds to the gradual emergence of algebraic complexity as extensions of rationals assignable to subsystems of this developing egg emerge. Increasingly larger values of effective Planck constant pop up. The system or develops magnetic body getting more and more complex and it begins gradually to control the developing embryo. This miraculous but quantum jump is literally a miracle: a recreation of the quantum Universe.

  3. What is needed is metabolic energy since to increase heff and to keep its values same requires energy output: heff tends to decrease spontaneously by liberating energy. Egg itself can provide part of metabolic energy. Mother hen provides also metabolic energy by hatching the egg. Perhaps the purpose of added chemicals was to provide more metabolic energy to fasten the process. Is addition of proteins serving as source of metabolic energy enough? One might ask whether also the magnetic body of moghet hen is involved.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

What smoothed out Earth's surface for 600 million years ago - or was it already smooth?

I learned about new fascinating finding (see this) related to the geological history of Earth. During a geologically very brief period Earth's surfaces would have somehow lost its surface details such as rivers and lakes. This would have happened for 600 million years ago. Before this there would have been period of snowball Earth.

TGD provides different view about the renovation of the surface of Earth by loss of details and about the period before this change: snowball Earth hypothesis seems un-necessary. There were no oceans. The situation would have been the same as in Mars now. Water was in underground oceans as has been observed recently in Mars. One could deduce the story of Earth from what we know about Mars on basis of latest discoveries.

Cambrian explosion, in which complex multicellulars suddenly and mysteriously emerged took place about 512 million years whereas the loss of details is claimed to have happened about 600 million years ago. TGD based theory of expanding Earth assumes that Cambrian explosion happened because of geologically very fast expansion of Earth so that the radius of Earth increased by a factor 2. Amusingly, the radius of Earth would have been before the expansion same as that of Mars now!

Expansion would correspond to one fast jerk in the sequence of jerks, which replaces smooth cosmic expansion in TGD Universe: it is indeed known that astrophysical objects co-move in expansion but do not expand themselves (except by jerks). These jerks would be induced by reduction of length scale dependent cosmological constant by factor 1/4, or more generally, negative power of 2. The findings suggest that the expansion started about 600 million years ago and happened geologically very fast. Note that length scale dependent cosmological constant solves the basic problem of standard cosmology, which has killed many theories, also superstring theory.

Before this life would have evolved in underground oceans - the womb of Mother Gaia - shielded from cosmic rays and meteors. Oxygen and other important molecules could not leak out so that oxygen based life could evolve. In the expansion the core of Earth split into two parts (Mars has same radius as Earth and only single core) and the rotation of the outer core created ordinary magnetic field preventing oxygen and other important molecules to leak out. Otherwise the life at surface would not have survived. The surface of Earth split into pieces giving rise to continents and underground oceans gave rise to the oceans.

Consider now the mystery of lost details.

  1. The surface of Earth before expansion should have looked very much the same as that of Mars now. Since there was very little water, rivers, lakes and this kind of features would have been practically absent. I do not know whether this is enough to explain the findings.

  2. If the surface of Earth was stretched in the sudden expansion, the details of Earth's surface would have tended to disappear since gradients are reduced in the stretching. Whether the stretching really occured is however not clear: one could argue that the surface split into pieces like clay soil as it dries and formed continents.

  3. The bottoms of oceans consisted of the magma from the interior of Earth and they should have been rather smooth. Also this might help to understand the findings.

See the articles Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life and Could Mars have intra-planetary life?

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Dark matter nightmare is not due to wrong equations but wrong philosophy

Sabine Hossenfelder wrote an article "Dark matter nightmare: What if we are just using the wrong equations?" (see this) suggesting that we are using wrong equations in general relativity. The point is that the field equations of general relativity are nonlinear and the averaging is not consistent with the non-linearity. Average metric does not obey Einstein's equations.

This is true but to my view cannot solve the problem. Far from source region the relative error made in averaging distance in range [r,r+Deltar] with the mean value of r and r+Deltar is of order Deltar/r and far from sources very small. One can write perturbation series in powers Delta r/r and higher contributions go rapidly to zero. One can also argue that Einstein's equations emerge at long length scale limit of the theory so that the argument would not work. One must replace Einstein equations with something more deeper.

I am convinced that the problem is not at the level of numerics but much deeper and much more general. It is about the basic philosophy behind recent day theoretical physics dominated by reductionism and physicalism. During years I have learned that also other fields of physics and also chemistry, biology, neuroscience, and consciousness are full of deep problems.

What I call naive length scale reductionism is the mother of all problems that we are not able to solve.

  1. Superstring models were hoped to be the last jewel in the crown of reductionism. With one huge step we would have jumped directly to Planck scale. It did not happen. Superstring models led to landscape problem. Then it turned out that landscape hoped to explain the small value of cosmological constant and its sign very probably does not exist. One must accept that superstring theory predicts huge cosmological constant with wrong sign. I other worlds: superstrings are dead since single wrong prediction is enough to kill the theory.

  2. The wrong path was however chosen much earlier. GUTs providing extremely naive generalization of standard model were the fatal step preceding superstrings. The fact that GUTs could not make any testable prediction except proton decay which did not happen, should have put bells ringing. But already standard model view about quark color is very probably wrong: for instance, axion difficulty and the failure to describe hadrons suggests strongly this. Why standard model gauge group is not at all understood.

  3. In spirit of reductionism nuclear physics have been pretended to be a mature branch of physics although it is just a collection of models each explaining some aspect of nuclear physics. 10 years ago emerged a very serious problem with the fact that nuclear abundances deduce from the physics of solar interior are different from those defined for solar spectrum and meteorites. "Cold fusion" and nuclear transmutations have been known for about century and have been labelled as pseudoscience but the situation has changed and even new technologies are under development. The transition from nucleons to nuclei is not understood: we do not even know what nuclei are!

  4. Atomic physics works rather nicely but also here there are some anomalies. The transitions from atomic to molecular physics to chemistry to organic chemistry to biochemistry are not really understood. Biochemistry fails to explain the coherence of bio-systems and cannot say anything about extreme effectiveness of bio-catalysis and the magic ability of reacting bio-molecules to find each other in molecular soup. Reductionism seems to be therefore an illusion.

  5. The tragic implication of the length scale reductionism is that scientists began to believe that they can solve deep problems of their own field without any knowledge about problems in other fields of physics. Particle physics know only about particle physics, nuclear physics only about nuclear physics, there is a camp of general relativists, there is a camp of superstringers,... The new information technology makes it possible to produce huge amounts of highly interesting data but specialists close their eyers for most of it. Here is the real reason for the stagnation of theoretical physics lasted now for more than four decades. And what is worst is that although the existing models are known to be wrong the work with them continues: the funding must go on.

In this kind of situation we should challenge the old dogmas. We must challenge even quantum theory and General Relativity, the great achievements of the previous century.
  1. Quantum measurement theory is plagued by a paradox forcing to give up ontology altogether in Copenhagen interpretation and to regard quantum theory as a mere collection of calculational recipes. In TGD framework one is forced to construct quantum measurement theory on basis of zero energy ontology. One implication is that classical theory is exact part of quantum theory and one can understand why quantum world manages to look classical. One deep implication is that ordinary state function reduction changes the arrow of time. For this there is now direct evidence from the experiments of Minev et al. The outcome not only solves the basic paradox of quantum measurement theory but extends physics to a theory of conscious experience and also makes radical and testable predictions. This of course means leaving the narrow confines of physicalism.

  2. General relativity is plagued by the conceptual problems due to the loss of Poincare symmetries so that the notions of energy and momentum are not defined in principle. This has led to endless variety of ad hoc proposals. Since the existence of conserved energy implies the existence of S-matrix, this could explain the failure to quantized GRT. String models were very promising attempt and the identification of string world sheets as 2-surfaces allowed to identify 4-momentum as Noether charges.

    What about replacement of 4-geometry with 4-surfaces in suitably chosen higher-D imbedding space with Poincare symmetries acting as isometries? When this question is made, it is easy to end up with TGD. Standard model symmetries emerge from this framework as prediction emerging from both number theoretical vision and twistor lift of TGD. Quark color differs from QCD color and in the simplest scenario this difference makes it possible to regard leptons as local composite of 3-quarks analogous to super partners of quarks. SUSY in TGD sense is essential element of second quantization of fermions.

    The study of classical TGD leads to identification of stringlike entities - cosmic strings -as basic 4-D surfaces. During cosmic expansion they thicken to magnetic flux tubes which serve as building bricks of galaxies. Twistor lift leads to length scale dependent cosmological constant and predicts that cosmic expansion takes place in jerks involving reduction of cosmological constant implyin acceleration period followed by slowing down.

    One outcome is an explanation of galactic dark matter predicting automatically the flat velocity spectrum of stars. No exotic particles are needed and there is no halo, whose existence has been challenged by data. There are also galaxies which apparently lack dark matter: also this can be understood. Galactic dark matter could be actually dark energy consiting of magnetic and volume energy of monopole flux tubes formed from cosmic strings. Quantum classical correspondence suggests that dark energy and dark matter can be identified. ‎

    The phases of ordinary particles with non-standard value of effective Planck constant heff= nh0 behave in many aspects like dark matter. The existence of these phases follows from number theoretic vision following from the question: what could be the correlates of cognition. Also this question goes outside the confines of physicalism. The outcome is what I call adelic physics, and the integer n corresponds to the dimension of extension of rationals defining the adele. This leads to a dramatic breakthrough in quantum biology according to TGD. The implications are seen in all scales since quantum coherence is possible in all scales and I have been busily deducing the implications.

If some colleague would bother to learn about TGD and asked what is the secret of the success of TGD I would give a simple answer. Challenge the old dogmas! This has led to a new view about space-time giving at QFT limit Einsteinian space-time and Einstein's equations in long length scales. The equations at fundamental level are very different from Einstein's equations and extremely simple and number theory becomes part of physics. TGD forces to give up physicalism and reductionism is replaced by fractality. To me this shows that tinkering with old equations leads nowhere: one must start from much deeper level.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Some comments related to Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO)

Zero energy ontology (ZEO) lies behind TGD based quantum measurement theory in turn giving rise to a theory of consciousness by making observed part of system as a conscious entity - self . ZEO solves the basic paradox of quantum measurement theory forcing to give up ontology altogether in the Copenhagen interpretation. ZEO has become a key aspect of the entire TGD based physics.

The basic prediction of ZEO is that ordinary ("big"}) state function reductions (BSFRs) involve change of the arrow of time. There is a lot of support for this prediction. The recent highly counterintuitive findings of Minev et all provided support for the time reversal in atomic systems. Fantappie proposed decades ago time reversal in living systems and introduced syntropy as time reversed entropy. In living matter the generation of more complex molecules from their building bricks can be seen as decay in time reversed direction. Phase conjugate laser beams are known to obey time reversed second law.

Also Libet's findings related to the active aspects of conscious experience find a nice explanation in terms of the time reversal. The latest application is to the understanding of the mysterious looking findings about earthquakes and volcanic eruptions suggesting that macroscopic quantum jumps involving time reversal are in question. This suggest that experimental verification of the time reversal and occurrence of macroscopic quantum jumps is possible by studying causal anomalies. For these reasons is important to try to develop the details of the view about ZEO as precise as possible.

In the article "Some comments related to Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO)" I will consider more precise mathematical formulation and physical interpretation of ZEO. ZEO forms also the cornerstone of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and I will consider also some related aspects of ZEO such as the notions of free will and intentionality, the notions of memory and precognition as its time reversal, intuitive in contrast to formal reasoning, and remote metabolism as a universal thermodynamical mechanism of metabolism in ZEO based thermodynamics.

See the article Some comments related to Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) or the chapter Zero Energy Ontology and Matrices of "Towards M-matrix".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Cosmic strings and magnetic flux tubes as basic building bricks of TGD Universe

This posting consists of an answer to Wes Johnson's question inspired by the findings supporting the existence of Martian life. I will explain first the relationship between cosmic strings and flux tubes and the general role of cosmic strings and flux tubes in cosmology, astrophysics, and physics in TGD Universe. I will add this post also to my blog.

A. What cosmic strigs and magnetic flux tubes are?

A.1. Cosmic strings and monopole flux tubes

There are two kinds of cosmic string and flux tubes. Those carrying monopole flux and those carrying non-monopole flux. The first are not possible in Maxwellian world whereas the latter are.

  1. Monopole flux tubes originate from cosmic string extremals, which are space-time surfaces which have 2-D minimal surface as projection to 4-D MInkowski space M^4 and 2-D minimal surface projection to CP_2. For all practical purposes above CP_2 scale which is about 10^4 Planck lengths these 4-D surfaces look like 2-D string world sheets.

    1. They are monopole flux tubes since the magnetic flux over cross section of tube, which is closed 2-surface rather than disk as for ordinary flux tubes, is non-vanishing and quantized. Essentially the homology charge of the CP_2 projection. The projection is sphere S^2 in the simplest case.

    2. Monopole flux tubes are necessarily closed since magnetic field lines parallel to them must be closed. In particular, one can have flux tubes which look somewhat like rectangles with very short and very long side. These give rise to U-shaped tentacles crucial in biology.

      The long sides of U-shaped tentacles can also form DNA-like helical structure. This kind of dark structure would be behind ordinary DNA: dark DNA would carry dark proton sequence neutralizing the negative charges of nucleotides and making DNA stable. Codon would correspond to 3-proton unit: codon would correspond to 3-proton unit and vertebrate DNA code is predicted correctly.

    3. Monopole flux tubes can be also 2-sheeted. Flux tube can connected wormhole throats at sheet A and continue along wormhole contact with Euclidian signature of induced metric and representable as small deformation of CP_2 type extremal - essentially elementary particle- to parallel space-time sheet B. Flux would return back along B and return back to A along the first wormholecontant.

  2. TGD predicts also non-monopole flux tubes with closed cross section for which flux over cross section vanishes. Also they can exists as a version for which one say disk instead of sphere and glues it to background space-time sheet. Now one however requires current at the boundary of the disk. The thckenings of these would represent flux tubes of *ordinary* magnetic field.

B. (Monopole) cosmic strings, cosmology, and cosmological constant
  1. Cosmic strings dominate in very early cosmology during which space-time with 4-D M^4 projection had not emerged.

  2. During TGD counterpart of inflationary phase their 2-D M^4 projection starts to thicken and becomes 4-D: ordinary Einsteinian space-time emerges.

  3. Their dark energy consisting of Kahler magnetic energy and volume energy decreases and transforms to ordinary matter: this corresponds to the decay of inflaton field. The thickening of flux tubes slows down by the increase of the volume energy competing with the decrease of magnetic energy and one obtains radiation dominated phase.

  4. These first accelerating and then slowing down periods of thickening repeat being associated with the decrease of length scale dependent cosmological constant by a factor, which is negative power of 2. The rapid expansion of Earth's radius by factor 2 in Cambrian explosion is example of this kind of rapid jerk. This jerkwise cosmic expansion replaces smooth expansion (see this).

    Quite generally, highly developed multicellulars would evolve in underground oceans of planets acting as wombs. Various ions from stellar wind and dark photons would arrive along dark flux tubes to the interior. Earth could be predecessor in the sense that the life from underground ocean would have emerged to the surface during Cambrian explosion as the radius of Earth increase by factor 2.

  5. This could solve Fermi paradox. Life would be everywhere but inside the planets in planetary wombs. We might be pioneers. An alternative solution is that we are already in telepathic contact with higher life forms at dark magnetic bodies but do not realize it. We ourselves could have magnetic bodies with Earth sized and perhaps even galaxy sized layers.

    This is not the only possible TGD inspired solution of Fermi paradox. Our own magnetic body would have layers with size of Earth scale and perhaps even galactic scale. We could be in continual contact with the magnetic bodies of members of other civilizations without knowing it - say during dream states. We could have even neural machinery activating these flux tube contacts. DMT is the only psychelic produced by body itself, and is assigned with pineal gland, which Descartes identified as the seat seat of soul. In zero energy ontology light velocity would not be a problem for communications with distant civlization since signals could propagate in both directions and time reflection would make communications forth and back in time possible (see this).

  6. This gives a solution to the problem of cosmic constant plaguing competing theories and which gave the final death blow to superstring models. The cosmological constant is indeed very large in short scales but in recent cosmic scale extremely small. Cosmological constant in given scale involves two length scales: horizon sizes and the typical thickness of flux tube. For recent cosmology flux tube thickness has the size scale of large neutron and Compton length of neutrino so that a connection with biology and neutrino physics emerges.

  7. Monopole flux tubes and probably also their non-monopole variants possibly defining the flux tubes along which gravitational interactions propagate (monopole or non-monopole: this is not yet clear) form a fractal network and appear in all scales

C. (Monopole) osmic strings, flux tubes and physics and biology
  1. All branches of physics starting from the formation of galaxies, stars, and planets down to biology, molecular physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, hadron physics,... involve monopole flux tubes as basic entities. Ironically the intuition of string model builders was right but they were too hasty to ask how to obtain 4-D space-time and lost 35 years. The best manner to be really slow is to be very hasty.

  2. Monopole flux which is direct reflection of surface property of space-time means a very essential deviation from Maxwell's theory. These magnetic fields require no current as source so that that they can exists in very early cosmology where there are no coherent currents in long scales.

  3. This explains the observed magnetic fields in cosmic scales.

  4. Also the maintenance problem of magnetic field of Earth finds solution. Monopole part requires no current which requires energy feed to avoid dissipation. The ordinary part decays but the change of the orientations of the monopole part - magnetic body of Earth- generates currents regenerating the ordinary part. One can visualize Earth's magnetic body as a magnetic animal turning its body to regenerate ordinary magnetic field! van Allen belts would be associated with monopole part of MB and also auroras (see this).

  5. Also the recently discovered magnetic field of Mars with same strength as Eart's magnetic field would consists of monopole flux tubes. This also explains Martian auroras (see this).

  6. The reconnections of monopole flux tubes give rise to topological dynamics associated with the formation of auroras. When otherwise unseen monopole flux tubes carrying dark matter as heff=n×h0 phases reconnect part of dark matter transforms to ordinary matter and also currents (Birkeland currents) giving rise to ordinary magnetic fields are generated. This topological dynamics is behind biochemistry and biocatalysis. Molecules find each other by U-shaped flux tube tentacles which reconnected to pair of flux tubes. Then the pair shortens by reducing heff. This liberates energy making possible for reactants to jump over the potential wall making the reaction very slow (see this) .

D. Further questions about flux tubes

Wes Johson asked also following questions related to magnetic flux tubes.

  • Monopole flux tubes require no current but do they EMF a current or then what system does drive the energy of these tubes so universal?

  • And, why would a beginning of a Universe need to be chaotic, (no regular coherent magnetic fields yet in the early phase?)

  • I think the Second Law of Thermodynamics tells us it must begin in maximal order.

  • And... are your dark tubes called that because they what, can't be observed? But they drive the patterns we do observe so why are they dark? Out of our phase?

My answers.
  1. They have magnetic energy and volume energy, which they cannot dissipate. This is prevented by monopole character of flux. It is conserved. This makes them stable and they replace the unstable wormoles in ER-EPR. Actually the TGD counterpart of ER-EPR emerged much before ER-EPR but for some reason the colleagues had not noticed TGD proposal.

    The deformations of monopole flux tubes generate to its magnetic field rotational part which has current as source. This is expected to dissipate and lead to dissipation of corresponding part of magnetic field. Remember that we are considering space-time surfaces and fields are completely geometrized and determined by geometry from CP_2.

  2. If the beginning was cosmic string dominated, it need not be chaotic.

    There are excellent reasons to believe that TGD Universe at the level of zero energy states corresponds to a completely integrable system, which is extremely highly ordered allowing infinite number of conservation laws. If the cosmic strings dominated in the beginning, the low entropy initial state looks plausible.

    Here one must however remember that there is entropy related to the purely geometric degrees of freedom and the fermionic degrees of freedom inside them.

  3. Second law must be generalized in TGD framework since the arrow of time is not fixed. Small state function reductions a counterparts of weak measurements generate entanglement and therefore entanglement entropy. In TGD Universe however both arrows of time are possible: the arrow actually changes in ordinary state function reduction.

    In biology the change of arrow would occur routinely. Basic biomolecular reactions involve ordinary state function reductions changing the arrow of time. Magnetic flux tubes again. Also macroscopic quantum jumps changing the arrow of time are possible and the very strange findings about volcanic eruptions and earthquakes can be understood if they correspond to quantum jumps chabging the arrow of time. Monopole flux tubes are in a key role also here.

  4. Darkness means in TGD following. The working hypothesis is that only particles with same value of h_eff=n*h_0 can appear in the same vertex. In this sense particles with different value of h_eff would be relatively dark. The change of h_eff for single particle states is however possible. It would preserve energy.

    In case of photons transition would change frequency by conservation of E= heff×f. For instance, dark ELF photons could produce ordinary photons identified as biophotons and having energies in visible and UV. This would make possible for long range degrees of freedom to control short length scales (say biomolecular transitions by magnetic body).

    Dark flux tubes are observable both indirectly and directly. The measure magnetic fields in many-sheeted space-time are sums of ordinary and dark contributions since test particle as extremely small CP2 size object touches all space-time sheets extremely near to each other and experience the sum of fields from various sheets defining the gauge field at QFT limit of TGD replaced many-sheeted space-time with piece of M4, which becomes slightly curved.

    For instance, the reconnections of cosmic strings induce transformation of dark matter at them to ordinary matter, which is observed in auroras also in Mars which was though to have no appreciable magnetic field but has according to the latest measurements - as strong as Earth's field at same distance!

    Quite generally, dark matter makes itself observable via its transformation to ordinary matter and vice versa. One must accept either the violation of basic conservation laws or existence of dark matter in TGD sense. The situation is same as for neutrinos. Biophotons is one example. Emdrive effect discovered in NASA is second example. Also in atomic physics there is effect in which valence electrons mysteriously disappear. The list is already now long.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.


Monday, October 14, 2019

Hot nuclear fusion is again almost here

Nature told that UK hatches plan to build world's first fusion power plant. Best wishes for the project. Hot nuclear fusion have been realized next year for half century. Maybe it is time to ask why we still do not have it?

Could the problem be that we still do not have a proper theory of nuclear interactions? QCD as a theory of nuclear interactions did not help to understand nuclear physics. Nuclear physics degenerates to a jungle of potential models and of their quantum field theory versions each of them explaining some aspect of experimenal findings but nothing more. There is even a "complementarity" principle saying that this Babel of models is quite OK!

Despite the situation the reductionistic dogma requires pretending that nuclear physics is a closed chapter in physics.

Particle physics was decided to be the next big step in the reductionistic march towards Planck scale and we started to pretend that M-theory was the last giant step in the march. Now it has become clear that we have ended up to a dead end and should return to where we started. Not only to standard model and sixties, not even fourties when nuclear physics emerged, but even back to the beginning of previous century and ask what went wrong at the level of basic philosophy.

Challenging of reductionism is necessary in order to make progress. For instance, nuclear physics has large number of anomalies. One such anomaly is 10 years old. From solar seismology the abundances of isotopes inside Sun are different from those outside Sun deduced from solar spectroscopy and meteorites. "Cold fusion" is second such anomaly and experimentalists are developing new technology while theoreticians refuse to know anything about LENR (low energy nuclear reactions).

I have myself continued for more than four decades lonely work with TGD forcing also a new view about nuclear physics. Ironically, nuclei would consist of string like objects, nuclear strings in TGD Universe (see this). To deepen the irony, string like entities - actually 4-D objects, appear in all lengh scales. The predicted hierarchy of phases of ordinary matter with non-standard value of Planck constant leads to a prediction of dark variants of nuclei with much smaller binding energies than ordinary nuclei and decaying to ordinary nuclei and liberating ordinart nuclear binding energy in the process.

TGD explains "cold fusion" as outcome of the fusion of protons to dark nuclei decayig to ordinary nuclei (see this). This mechanism is also the mechanism of ordinary nuclear fusion. The tunnellig phenomenon essential in the standard model of nuclear fusion is replaced with the formation of dark nuclei as intermediate states. The higher abundances of isotopes in solar core would be due to the presence of dark variants of nuclei (see this).

I dare to guess that a real understanding of theoretical nuclear physics could lead to a real progress in fusion research. But this depends on colleagues in the academic hegenomy: they decide. When they are finally mature to admit that TGD might be it and stop the censorship? This will be painful but there is no other manner to proceed.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

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Sunday, October 13, 2019

The implications of TGD view about magnetic fiels for superconductivity

TGD predicts two kinds of magnetic fields depending on whether flux tubes carry monopole flux or not. In Maxwellian framework flux tubes cannot carry any monopole flux. In TGD based model of high Tc superconductivity (see this and this) monopole flux tubes current carriers are dark having nonstandard value heff=n× h0 of effective Planck constant. Also in bio-superconductivity monopole flux tubes are current carriers. An open question has been whether also ordinary super-conductivity could correspond to monopole flux tubes and I have considered the possibility that this is the case.

The recent progress in understanding the relationship between two kinds of magnetic fields (see for instance this and this) allows to consider more precisely the relationship between these two kinds of super-conductivities. In particular, one can try to understand Meissner effect in ordinary super-conductivity and its absence in the predicted super-conductivity based on monopole flux tubes. The conclusion is that ordinary super-conductivity corresponds to ordinary flux tubes and that Meissner effect has no counterpart in monopole superconductivity.

It is best to start from the ordinary super-conductivity by making an unpleasant question. Meissner effect relates to the possible penetration of magnetic field to super-conductor. Supra-current creates a local magnetic field. Why doesn't this magnetic field destroy super-conductivity?

The answer would be in TGD space-time following.

  1. The super-conductor consists of parallel cylindrical tubes carrying supra-currents at their boundaries. These currents create magnetic fields rotating around the cylinders but have no component in z- direction. Magnetic fields vanish at the boundaries of the cylinders.

  2. Superconductors can be classified to two types. For superconductors of type I one has λ/ξ<1/21/2 whereas for superconductors of type II one has λ/ξ>1/21/2. Here λ is the magnetic penetration length, which is roughly the radius of magnetic flux tube. ξ is the coherence length which is roughly the radius of cylinder carrying supra current at its boundary.

    Supra-current generates vortices and in this manner serves as a source for magnetic field inside magnetic flux tube of field possibly penetrating into superconductor. Flux tube must contain at least one current carrying flux tube. This cannot the case for superconductor of type I. Therefore, when ordinary magnetic field penetrates to super-conductor of type I above critical value of B, it must do so in the entire super-conductor. For superconductor of type II magnetic field can penetrate superconductor of type II in a cylinder of radius of order λ containing several current carrying cylinders. In this region the super-conductivity is destroyed since supra currents have component rotating along the cylinder giving rise to a longitudinal magnetic field inside the cylinder.

What about Meissner effect in monopole superconductors?
  1. Monopole flux does not require current as its source. Therefore Meissner effect does not prevent super-conductivity by requiring the super-current to be rotational to generate the magnetic field.

  2. Also now the presence of supra current inside monopole flux tube serves as a source for an additional rotational contribution to the magnetic field and the rotor of this additional contribution equals to the supra current. Monopole flux tube is deformed as a consequence. This does not however make supra-current rotational.

    Monopole superconductor can be said to be intermediate between types I and II since both coherence length and magnetic length correspond to flux tube radius. A possible interpretation is that monopole superconductivity is at quantum criticality between superconductivities of type I and II.

  3. The most plausible option is that the penetration of ordinary magnetic field to monopole super-conductor occur along non-monopole flux tubes at different space-time sheets so that it would therefore not spoil the super-conductivity at the monopole flux tubes.

See the chapter Quantum model for bio-superconductivity: part II .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.