Tuesday, May 30, 2017

TGD view about universal galactic rotation curves for spiral galaxies

The observed universality rotation curves for spiral galaxies is a challenge for TGD inspired model of galaxy formation. In TGD universality reduces to scaling invariance of the rotation curves natural since TGD Universe is quantum critical. The study of mini spiral galaxies supports the conclusion that they have a dark matter core of radius of few parsecs - 2-3 times the optical radius. This is a problem in the halo models. The simplest TGD based explanation is that galaxies correspond to knots or even spaghetti like tangles of long dark strings defining a kind of necklace containing galaxies as pearls. The model also suggests that dark matter core gives rise to Fermi bubble. Dark cosmic ray protons from supermassive galactic black hole containing dark matter would scatter from dark matter and some fraction of the produced dark photons would transform to ordinary ones. This would take place only inside the dark matter sphere and double sphere structure would be due to the fact that cosmic rays would not proceed far in galactic plane.

For details see the article TGD view about universal galactic rotation curves for spiral galaxies.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Saturday, May 27, 2017

Could categories, tensor networks, and Yangians provide the tools for handling the complexity of TGD?

TGD Universe is extremely simple but the presence of various hierarchies make it to look extremely complex globally.
Category theory and quantum groups, in particular Yangian or its TGD generalization are most promising tools to handle this complexity. The arguments developed in the sequel suggest the following overall view.

  1. Positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states can be regarded as tensor networks identifiable as categories.
    The new element is that one does not have only particles (objects) replaced with partonic 2-surfaces but also strings connecting them (morphisms). Morphisms and functors provide a completely new element not present in standard model. For instance, S-matrix would be a functor between categories. Various hierarchies of of TGD would in turn translate to hierarchies of categories.

  2. TGD view about generalized Feynman diagrams relies on two general ideas. First, the twistor lift of TGD replaces space-time surfaces with their twistor-spaces getting their twistor structure as induced twistor structure from the product of twistor spaces of M4 and CP2. Secondly, topological scattering diagrams are analogous to computations and can be reduced to tree diagrams with braiding. This picture fits very nicely with the picture suggested by fusion categories. At fermionic level the basic interaction is 2+2 scattering of fermions occurring at the vertices identifiable as partonic 2-surface and re-distributes the fermion lines between partonic 2-surfaces. This interaction is highly analogous to what happens in braiding interaction but vertices expressed in terms of twistors depend on momenta of fermions.

  3. Braiding transformations take place inside the light-like orbits of partonic 2-surfaces defining boundaries of space-time regions with Minkowskian and Euclidian signature of induced metric respectively permuting two braid strands. R-matrix satisfying Yang-Baxter equation characterizes this operation algebraically.

  4. Reconnections of fermionic strings connecting partonic 2-surfaces are possible and suggest interpretation in terms of 2-braiding generalizing ordinary braiding: string world sheets get knotted in 4-D space-time forming 2-knots and strings form 1-knots in 3-D space. Reconnection induces an exchange of braid strands defined by the boundaries of the string world sheet and therefore exchange of fermion lines defining boundaries of string world sheets. A generalization of quantum algebras to include also algebraic representation for reconnection is needed. Also reconnection might reduce to a braiding type operation.

Yangians look especially natural quantum algebras from TGD point of view. They are bi-algebras with co-product Δ. This makes the algebra multi-local raising hopes about the understanding of bound states. Δ-iterates of single particle system would give many-particle systems with non-trivial interactions reducing to kinematics.

One should assign Yangian to various Kac-Moody algebras (SKMAs) involved and even with super-conformal algebra (SSA), which however reduces effectively to SKMA for finite-dimensional Lie group if the proposed gauge conditions meaning vanishing of Noether charges for some sub-algebra H of SSA isomorphic to it and for its commutator [SSA,H] with the entire SSA. Strong form of holography (SH) implying almost 2-dimensionality motivates these gauge conditions. Each SKMA would define a direct summand with its own parameter defining coupling constant for the interaction in question.

See the new chapter Could categories, tensor networks, and Yangians provide the tools for handling the complexity of TGD? or the article with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, May 14, 2017

Galactic blackholes as a test for TGD view about formation of galaxies?

Galactic blackholes (or blackhole like entities) could serve as a test for the proposal. Galactic blackholes are supermassive having masses measured in billions of solar masses. These blackhole like entities is thought to grow rapidly as matter falls into them. In this process light is emitted and makes the blackhole a quasar (see this), one of the most luminous objects in the Universe.

TGD based model predicts that the seed of galaxy would be formed in the reconnection of cosmic strings and consist of dark matter. If galaxies are formed in this manner, the blackhole like entity formed in the reconnection point would get its mass from cosmic strings as dark mass and visible galactic mass would result from dark matter "boiling" to ordinary particles (as in the decay of inflaton field to particles). Matter from cosmic strings could flow to the reconnection point and a fraction of antimatter would remain inside cosmic string as dark matter.

During the "boiling" period intense radiation is generated, which leads to ask whether an interpretation as a formation of a quasar makes sense. The flow of matter would be from the blackhole like object rather than into it as in the ordinary model of quasar. Quasar like objects could of course be created also by the standard mechanism as ordinary matter starts to fall into the galactic dark blackhole and transforms to dark matter. This would occur much later than the formation of galactic blackhole like objects and galaxies around them.

Now three odd-ball quasars have been discovered in the early universe (13 billion years in past, less than billion years after Big Bang) by Eilers et al (see this). The authors conclude that the most compelling scenario is that these quasars have been shining only about 105 years. This time is not enough to build the mass that they have. This challenges the standard mechanism for the formation of galactic blackholes. What about the situation in TGD Universe? Could the odd-balls quasars be quasars in the usual sense of the word being created as ordinary matter starts to fall to the galactic dark matter blackhole and transforms to dark matter? Quantum phase transition would be

See the article Breaking of CP, P, and T in cosmological scales in TGD Universe.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, May 12, 2017

Excess of cosmic ray antiprotons as a further support for M89 hadron physics?

I received a link to a quite interesting popular article telling about surplus of antiprotons from cosmic rays interpreted in terms of dark matter particles decays to protons and antiprotons. The article mentions two articles summarizing essentially similar experimental findings.

The first article Novel Dark Matter Constraints from Antiprotons in Light of AMS-02 is published in Phys Rev Letters. The abstract is here.

We evaluate dark matter (DM) limits from cosmic-ray antiproton observations using the recent precise AMS-02 measurements. We properly take into account cosmic-ray propagation uncertainties, fitting DM and propagation parameters at the same time and marginalizing over the latter. We find a significant indication of a DM signal for DM masses near 80 GeV, with a hadronic annihilation cross section close to the thermal value,
< σ v>∼ 2× 10-26 cm3/s. Intriguingly, this signal is compatible with the DM interpretation of the Galactic center gamma-ray excess. Confirmation of the signal will require a more accurate study of the systematic uncertainties, i.e., the antiproton production cross section, and the modeling of the effect of solar modulation. Interpreting the AMS-02 data in terms of upper limits on hadronic DM annihilation, we obtain strong constraints excluding a thermal annihilation cross section for DM masses below about 50 GeV and in the range between approximately 150 and 500 GeV, even for conservative propagation scenarios. Except for the range around ∼ 80 GeV, our limits are a factor of ∼ 4 stronger than the limits from gamma-ray observations of dwarf galaxies.

The second article Possible Dark Matter Annihilation Signal in the AMS-02 Antiproton Data is also published in Phys Rev Letters . The abstract is here.

Using the latest AMS-02 cosmic-ray antiproton flux data, we search for a potential dark matter annihilation signal. The background parameters about the propagation, source injection, and solar modulation are not assumed a priori but based on the results inferred from the recent B/C ratio and proton data measurements instead. The possible dark matter signal is incorporated into the model self-consistently under a Bayesian framework. Compared with the astrophysical background-only hypothesis, we find that a dark matter signal is favored. The rest mass of the dark matter particles is ∼ 20-80 GeV, and the velocity-averaged hadronic annihilation cross section is about (0.2-5) × 10-26 cm3/s, in agreement with that needed to account for the Galactic center GeV excess and/or the weak GeV emission from dwarf spheroidal galaxies Reticulum 2 and Tucana III. Tight constraints on the dark matter annihilation models are also set in a wide mass region.

The proposal is that decay of dark matter particles possibly arriwing from the Galactic center produce proton-antiproton pairs. The mass of the decaying particles would be between 40-80 GeV. I have been talking for years about M89 hadron physics - a scaled up copy of ordinary hadron physics with mass scale 512 times higher than that of ordinary hadron physics. The pion of this physics would have mass about 69 GeV (by scaling from the mass of ordinary pion by factor 512). There are indications for two handfuls of bumps with masses of mesons of ordinary hadron physics scaled up by 512 (see this).

These scaled up pions could be produced abundantly in collisions of cosmic rays in atmosphere (situation would be analogous to that at LHC). It would not be surprising if they would producealso proton and antiproton pairs in their decays? This view about the origin of the dark pions is different from the usual view about dark matter. Dark pions would be created by the cosmic rays arriving from galactic center and colliding with nuclear matter in the Earth's atmosphere rather than arriving from the galactic center.

Can one say that they represent dark matter and in what sense? The TGD based proposal explaining various bumps observed at LHC and having masses 512 times those of ordinary mesons assumes that they are produced at quantum criticality and are dark in TGD sense meaning that the value of effective Planck constant for them is heff=n× h, n=512. Scaled up Compton length would realize long range quantum correlations at criticality. Dark mesons at criticality would be hybrids of ordinary and scaled up mesons: Compton length would same as for ordinary mesons but mass would 512 times higher: Esau's hands and Jacob's voice. This would give a precise meaning to what it means for two phases to be same at quantum criticality: half of both.

See the article M89 Hadron Physics and Quantum Criticality or the chapter New Physics Predicted by TGD: I of "p-Adic length scale hypothesis".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, May 11, 2017

Anomalous J/Ψ production and TGD

A new anomaly has been discovered by LHCb collaboration. The production of J/Ψ mesons in proton-proton collisions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN does not agree with the predictions made by a widely used computer simulation, Pythia. The result comes from CERN's LHCb experiment studying the jets of hadrons created as protons collide at 13 TeV cm energy.

These jets contain large numbers of J/Ψ mesons consisting of charmed quark and a charmed anti-quark. The LHCb measured the ratio of the momentum carried by the J/Ψ mesons to the momentum carried by the entire jet. They were also able to discriminate between J/Ψ mesons created promptly (direct/prompt production) in the collision and J/Ψ mesons that were created after the collision by the decay of charmed hadrons produced by jets
(jet production).

Analysis of the data demonstrates that PYTHIA - a Monte Carlo simulation used to model high-energy particle collisions - does not predict correctly the momentum fraction carried by prompt J/Ψ mesons. The conclusion is that the apparent shortcomings of PYTHIA could have a significant effect on how particle physics is done because the simulation is used both in the design of collider detectors and also to determine which measurements are most likely to reveal information about physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Heretic could go further and ask whether the problem is really with Pythia: could it be with QCD?

The TGD explanation for the finding is same as that for strangeness enhancement in p-p collisions in the same energy range at which the de-confinement phase transition is predicted to occur in QCD. In TGD one would have quantum criticality for a phase transition from the ordinary M107 hadron physics to M89 hadron physics with hadronic mass scale by a factor 512 higher than for ordinary hadrons. The gluons and quarks at quantum criticality would be dark in the sense of having heff/h=n=512. Also 1/n-fractional quarks and gluons are possible.

TGD predicts besides ordinary bosons two additional boson generations, whose family charge matrices in the space of fermion families are hermitian, diagonal and orthogonal to each other to the unit charge matrix for ordinary bosons, and most naturally same for all bosons. The charge matrices for higher generations necessarily break the universality of fermion couplings. The model for strangeness enhancement and the violation of lepton universality in B-meson decays predicts that the bosonic family charge matrix for second generation favours decays to third generation quarks and dis-favors decays to quarks of first and second generation. This predicts that the rate for prompt production of J/Ψ is lower and jet production rate from b-hadron decays is higher than predicted by QCD.

See the chapter New Physics predicted by TGD: I and the article Phase transition from M107 hadron physics to M89 hadron physics as counterpart for de-confinement phase transition? .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.