Friday, January 31, 2020

Helium problem and CNO problem: two anomalies explained by dark fusion

Helium problem means that there are stars with very low Helium content in the very early Universe. The predicted content is 3 times higher. This suggests that the view about Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is not quite correct. If the BBN abundance is one third from the accepted, there must be an additional mechanism producing He and it cannot be stellar fusion.

The popular article"Astronomers detect very unusual chemical composition in ancient star's atmosphere" tells about unexpectedly high C, N, and O contents in the atmosphere of one of the oldest and most elementally depleted stars known - a "primitive star" scientists call J0815+4729 representing. For a more technical representation see the original article. This finding obviously challenges the views about stellar nuclear fusion since the star in question is very young star and the element abundances should be near to those produced in BBN. Note however that the elemental abundances are associated with atmosphere of the star. Could there be a variant of fusion process taking place outside the stellar cores?

TGD predicts new nuclear physics, which could explain these anomalies. I have already earlier considered explanation of various anomalies (see this and this ). These two anomalies are only additional items in a long list.

  1. "Cold fusion" researchers, originally labelled as swindlers and crackpots, are nowadays regarded respectable scientists. Genuine cold fusion not allowed by standard nuclear physics is not in question and "low energy nuclear reactions" (LENR) is a politically more correct expression. "Nuclear transmutation" is also a term used.

    In TGD framework "cold fusion" is replaced by dark fusion involving generation of dark proton strings (some protons can transform to neutrons) having interpretation as dark nuclei (see this and this). They would have non-standard value heff =n×h0 of effective Planck constant and would be formed of protons directly because of thei large Compton length. Dark nuclei can transform to ordinary nuclei. This would give rise to "cold fusion".

  2. Dark fusion would precede ordinary nuclear fusion occurring in the cores of stars and contribute to the nuclear abundances and modify the predictions of bigbang fusion and stellar fusion and explain a long list of astrophysics anomalies. Also the theory of ordinary hot fusion would be changed. The fusion reactions could occur via a creation of dark nuclei - rather than via tunnelling - and the dark nuclei would read and reaction products would tranform back to ordinary nuclei.

  3. The model change the view about the prestellar period of stars. "Cold" fusion in TGD sense would serve as a "warm-up band" and the energy liberated as dark nuclei generated from protons transform to ordinary nuclei would transform to ordinary nuclei and gradually heat the matter so that ordinary nuclear physics enters in the game and stellar core is born. The dark fusion generates nuclei with all nuclear weights.

How could understand the two anomalies in terms of dark fusion? Consider first the Helium content of the early Universe.
  1. Light elements D, T, He, Be would have been produced during by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) during first few minutes (see this and this). The production ceased as the temperature became too low for nuclear reactions to occur. Nuclear reactions started again in the stellar cores and according to the prevailing wisdom produced the heavier elements.

    The relative abundance of Helium (which cannot be produced in stellar interiors), estimated to be about 25 per cent, would be determined by BBN. He abundance depends on the density protons and the exact value of Hubble constant determining the expansion rate. It is possible to vary these parameters so that the observed value of He abundance (difficult to observe, for instance for Sun it is not known) is taken as the input.

  2. Giving up entire Big Bang theory (BB) is not a plausible idea. One can modify the parameters of BB to obtain a lower amount of Helium. This however requires an additional fusion mechanism, which must have been at work outside stellar cores and produced higher He content outside stars after BB.

    The contribution of dark fusion tends to increase the abundances determined by BBN. The amount of Helium produced in BBN should be considerably lower than believed and Helium poor stars would provide a better upper bound for He produced in BB. The amount of He would increase at least by a factor 3 by the production during pre-stellar periods by dark fusion. This implies that the density fraction of baryonic matter - few per cent in standard picture - would have been even lower. This does not seem to be a problem.

Dark fusion outside stellar interiors could also explain the anomalously high CNO content in the atmospheres of stars as being due to the prestellar period and have nothing to do with the physics in the stellar cores. Exceptionally high C, N, and O abundances would be produced by dark fusion outside stellar interiors - such as stellar atmospheres - and relate to the warmup period.

What is intriguing C, N, and O playing a central role in biology are involved. There is evidence for bio-fusion - not taken seriously by the mainstream - and since Pollack effect (see this) generating dark nuclei at room temperature in presence of say solar radiation, is central in TGD based quantum biology, dark fusion producing ordinary nuclei in living matter is predicted (see this).

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

About detection of gravitation radiation from TGD cosmic strings

Thanks to Wes Johnson for the link about detection of cosmic strings by gravitational waves (see this and also this).

First a technical note to avoid mis-understandings.

  1. Cosmic strings discussed in the article are very different from those of TGD. They are defects in gauge theories at which something - say the phase of Higgs like field becomes ill-defined. Vortex core is analogous to this kind of string: the direction of velocity becomes ill-defined. They carry a very high density of energy.

  2. In TGD framework cosmic strings are string like objects and correspond to 4-D space-time surfaces which having 2-D string world sheet as projection to M4 factor of H=M4xCP2. Flux tubes are obtained by thickening the 2-D M4 projection to 4-D.

    String tension is determined by the value of length scale dependent cosmological constant and by the value of Kähler coupling strength and is for the cosmic strings of the same order of magnitude as for GUT cosmic strings. String tension is roughly proportional to length scale dependent dependent cosmological constant for the flux tubes and behaves like 1/L2(k), where L(k) &protpo; 2k/2 is p-adic length scale. String tension approaches to zero in long length scales.

  3. In TGD there are also genuine 2-D string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces identifiable as 2-D singularities of space-time surfaces as minimal surfaces and accompany flux tubes. At number theoretical level they correspond to the singularities of the tangent space for the M8 counterpart of space-time surface at which 4-D quaternionic tangent space reduces to 2-D. They are mapped to singularities of H counterpart of space-time surface by M8-H duality. I will say later something about the nature of these singularities at the level of H.

The article mentions two interesting effects making making perhaps possible detection of gravitational waves emitted by cosmic strings - which by their huge mass density are ideal for generating gravitational waves. I have not considered these since the cosmic strings in TGD sense or flux tubes make themselves visible directly via the formation of galaxies, stars, and even planets and they are visible also in other scales. Magnetic anomalies is one examples of the anomalies.

Could one detect the gravitational waves created by cosmic strings - either GUT strings or cosmic strings in TGD sense?

  1. Reconnections of cosmic strings are possible both in GUTs and TGD. In GUTs the closed loops decay by emitting gravitational radiation. In TGD framework the monopole flux prevents dissipation of the energy but graviton bursts can be emitted from cusps and kinks of string.

  2. In TGD framework the periods of thickening for cosmic strings and flux loops transform part of the energy to ordinary matter and also gravitational radiation is generated. Generation of quasars or their predecessors during TGD analog of inflationary period leading from cosmic string dominance to radiation dominated cosmology would give rise to the most intense emission.

  3. The crucial question whether cosmic strings are still there and if not, what is the radius of the flux tubes determined the p-adic length scale L(k) &propto 21/2. If the radius is too large, there are hopes for the detection of gravitational radiation. The radiation power must be proportional to the square of string tension that is 1/L2(k)&propto 2-2k approaching zero with exponential rate. k=2 could correspond to order of magnitude not far from that for GUT cosmic strings. If ordinary blackhole like entities correspond to k=107 charactering proton and proton Compton length, the power of detecting gravitational radiation from the corresponding flux tubes is exremely low.

  4. The writhing of cosmic string is the first effect discussed in the popular article. Bullwhip makes a crack-like sound. I understand that the direction of whip must change by almost 180 degrees in writhing - total turning back (I hope I am correct here). Same could happen for cosmic strings but now the motion of string approaching light velocity would replace sound velocity. A signal propagating in single direction would be generated. During the period 2005-2010 LIGO detected no signal. The reason could be that the signal comes only in single direction: they did not have luck.

    The TGD counterparts cracks might be very rare if the dynamics allows them at all. In TGD preferred extremal property poses infinite number of additional constraints on the minimal surface solution as a generalization of constraints expressing conformal invariance in string models besides minimal surface property - in fact, the additional condition is that an extremal of 4-D Kaehler action is also in question. All known extremals have this property.

    What makes this interesting that for fermionic string world sheets as singularities of 4-D minimal surfaces are proposed to be discontinuities in the direction of tangent space of space-time surface - kind of 2-D fold in 4-D cloth in H=M4xCP2. Also this fold represents total turning back. Writhing would represent a discontinuous tangent for string - a 1-D fold in this 2-D fold: fold inside fold? Can one allows this kind of singularities?

  5. Second very elegant method relies on the change in the timing of pulsars. The gravitational wave, which can have very low frequency as in case of cosmic strings causes variation of the period of pulsar: gravitational waves cause variation of lengths and this is variation of the period as length of time interval. Hitherto nothing has been observed.

See the article Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Magnetars as additional support for monopole flux tubes

There is an interesting popular article about magnetars in Quanta Magazine (see this). The article tells about the latest findings of Zhou and Vink and colleagues (see this) giving hints about the mechanism generating the huge magnetic fields of magnetars.

Neutron stars have surface magnetic field of order 108 Tesla. Magnetars have surface magnetic field stronger by a factor 1000 - of order 1011 Tesla. The mechanism giving rise to so strong magnetic fields at the surface of neutron star is poorly understood. Dynamo mechanism is the first option. The rapidly rotating currents at the surface of neutron star would generate the magnetic field. Second model assumes that some stars simply have strong magnetic fields and the strength of these magnetic fields can vary even by factor of order 1000. Magnetars and neutron stars would inherit these magnetic fields. The model should also explain why some stars should have so strong magnetic fields - what is the mechanism generating them. In Maxwellian world currents would be needed in any case and some kind of dynamo model suggests itself.

Dynamo model requires very rapid rotation with rotation frequency measured using millisecond as a natural unit. The fast rotation rate predicts that magnetars are produced in more energetic explosions than neutron stars. The empirical findings however support the view that there is no difference between supernovas producing magnetars and neutron stars. Therefore it would seem that the model assuming inherited magnetic fields is favored.

What says TGD? TGD view about magnetic fields differs from Maxwellian view and this allows to understand the huge magnetic without dynamo mechanism and could give a justification for the inheritance model.

  1. TGD predicts that magnetic field decomposes to topological field quanta - flux tubes and sheets - magnetic flux tubes carry quantized magnetic flux. Flux tubes can have as cross section either open disk (or disk with holes) or closed surface not possible in Minkowskian space-time. The cross section can be sphere or sphere with handles.

  2. If the cross section is disk a current at its boundaries is needed to create the flux. If the cross section is closed surface, no current is needed and magnetic flux is stable against dissipation and flux tube itself is stable against pinching by flux conservation. These monopole fluxes could explain the fact that there are magnetic fields in cosmological scales not possible in Maxwellian theory since the currents should be random in cosmological scales.

    This also solves the maintenance problem of the Earth's magnetic field. Its monopole part would stable and 2/5 of the entire magnetic field BE=.5 Gauss from TGD based model of quantum biology involving endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss identifiable in terms of monopole flux.

The model for the formation of astrophysical objects in various scales such as galaxies and stars and even planets and also for quantum biology relies crucially on monopole fluxes.
  1. The proposal (see this) is that stars correspond tangles formed to long monopole flux tube. Reconnection could of course give rise to closed short flux tubes and one would have kind of spaghetti.

    The interior of Sun would contain flux tubes containing dark nuclei as nucleon sequences and one ends up to a modification of the model of nuclear fusion based on the excitation of dark nuclei (see darkcore). The model solvs a 10 year old anomaly of nuclear physics of solar core discovered by Asplund et al. From the TGD based model of "cold fusion" one obtains the estimate that the flux tube radius is of order electron Compton length, and thus about heff/h0≈ mp/me∼ 2000 times longer than proton Compton length. This has been assumed also in the TGD based model of stars (see this).

  2. The final states of stars could correspond to a volume filling spaghettis of flux tube analogous to blackhole. They would be characterized by the radius of the flux tube, which would naturally correspond to a p-adic length scale L(k)∝ 2k/2: one could speak of various kinds of blackhole like entities (BHEs). There radius of the flux tube would be scaled up by the value of effective Planck constant heff=n× h0 so that one would have n∝ 2k/2 in good approximation.

  3. The p-adic length scales L(k), with k prime are good candidates for p-adic lengths scales. Most interesting candidates correspond to Mersenne primes and Gaussian Mersennes MG,k= (1+i)k-1. Ordinary blackhole could correspond to a flux tube with radius of order Compton of proton corresponding to the p-adic length scale L(107).

    For neutron star the first guess would be as the p-adic length scale L(127) of electron from the model of Sun.
    L(113) assignable to nuclei and corresponding to Gaussian Mersenne is also a good candidate for magnetar's p-adic length scale. L(109) assigned to deuteron would correspond to an object very near to blackhole corresponding to L(107) (see this). Also the surface and interior of BHE would carry enormous monopole fluxes 32 times stronger than for magnetars.

    The are just guesses but bringing in quantized monopole fluxes together with p-adic length scale hypothesis allows to develop a quantitative picture.

Consider first the flux quantization hypothesis more precisely.
  1. The observation that to the vision about monopole magnetic fields and hierarchy of Planck constants now derivable from adelic physics was that the irradiation of vertebrate brain by ELF frequencies induces physiological and behavioral effects which look like quantal. As if cyclotron transitions in endogenous magnetic field Bend= 2BE/5≈ 0.2 Gauss would have been in question. The energies of photons involved are however ridiculously small and cannot have any effects. The proposal was that the effective value of Planck constant is quantized: heff=nh0 and can have very large values in living matter. The energies E=hefff of photons could thus be over thermal threshold and have effects. The matter with non-standard value of heff would correspond to dark matter.

  2. One can make the picture more quantitative by considering the quantization of flux. The radius r of a flux tube carrying unit magnetic flux is known as magnetic length r2= Φ0/eπ B , where Φ0 corresponds to minimal quantized flux Φ0 =BS= Bπ r2= n× hbar/eB for flux tube having disk D2 as cross section. If Bend is ordinary Maxwellian flux one obtains for Bend=0.2 Gauss r= 5.8 μm which is rather near to L(169)= 5× 10-6 μm Cell membrane length scale L(151)= 10 nm corresponds to the scaling Bend→ 218Bend≈ 5 Tesla and 1 Tesla corresponds to the magnetic length r=2.23 × L(151).

    One can argue that one must have quantization of flux as multiples of heff. The geometric interpretation is that ℏeff=nℏ0 corresponds to n-sheeted structure (Galois covering) and the above quantization gives flux for a single sheet. The total flux as sum of these fluxes is indeed proportional to ℏeff.

  3. For monopole flux tubes disk D2 is replaced with sphere S2 and the area S=π× r2 in magnetic flux is replaced with S=4π r2. This means scaling r→ r/2 for the magnetic length. The p-adic length scale becomes L(167), which corresponds to Gaussian Mersenne is indeed the scale that might have hoped whereas the ordinary flux quantization giving L(169) was a disappointment. This gives a solution to a longstanding puzzle why L(169) instead of L(167) and additional support for monopole flux tubes in living matter. As a matter of fact, there are four Gaussian Mersennes corresponding to k∈ {151,157,163,167} giving rise to 4 p-adic length scales in the range [10 nm, 2.5 μm] in the biologically most important length scale range. This is a number theoretic miracle.

It is useful to list some numbers for monopole flux by using the scaling ∝ 1/L2(k)∝ 2-k/2 to get a quantitative grasp about the situation for magnetars and other final states of stars.
  1. For monopole flux L(151) corresponds to 216Bend(k=167) ≈ 1.28 Tesla. For ordinary flux it corresponds to 2.56 Tesla. A good mnemonic is that Tesla corresponds to r= 1.13× L(151).

  2. For neutron star one has B∼ 108 Tesla. For monopole flux this would correspond for ordinary flux magnetic length r≈ 1.13 pm roughly 2.8Le, where Le= .4 pm is electron Compton length. Note that the corresponding p-adic length scales is L(127)=2.5 pm ≈ 2.2r so that also interpretation in terms of L(125) can be considered. For non-monopole flux one would have roughly r=2.26 pm. Neutron star would be formed when all flux tubes become dark flux tubes and perhaps form single connected volume filling structure.

  3. For magnetar one has magnetic field about B=1011 Tesla roughly 1000 times stronger than for neutron star. For monopole flux this would give r= 30 fm to be compared with the nuclear p-adic length scale L(113)= 20 fm. Could the p-adic length scale L(109)= 2L(107)= 5 fm correspond to a state rather near to blackhole? L(109) would would have 16 times stronger surface magnetic field B≈ .45 × 1012 Tesla than magnetar. For the TGD counterpart of ordinary blackhole having k=107 the surface magnetic field B≈ 1.8 × 1012 Tesla would be 32 times stronger than for magnetar.

All these estimates are order of magnitude estimates and p-adic lengths scale hypothesis only says something about scales.

See the article Magnetars as a support for the notion of monopole flux tube, the longer article Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Too heavy too early

I got a link to a rather thought provoking article telling about particular quasars identified as a super-massive blackhole (780 million solar masses). Quite generally quasar masses vary in the range 108-109 solar masses. Galactic blackholes have mass in the range 105-109 solar masses. Milky Way blackhole has much smaller mass about 4× 106 solar masses.

Remark: I prefer to talk about blackhole like entities (BHEs): for TGD view about BHEs see this .

  1. The first question considered by the researches is what burned away the neutral fog around the BHE: it is known that re-ionization must have burned away the fog ending the "dark ages" during which the Universe was transparent but there were no sources of light, which we could see (cosmic redhsift). Dark ages ended when re-ionization took place by light burning away the fog - perhaps light coming from dwarf galaxies and high energy photons from quasars did this. Despite re-onization the light could propagate since the density of matter absorbing it was so low.

  2. There is also second deep problem: quasar - if indeed BHE - is too massive quite too early. This problem is met for all quasars - the age of the universe is measures using 1 billion years as a natural time unit for the observed quasars. If the galactic blackholes were former quasars, their masses should be larger than for quasars. The mass of Milky Way BHE is however of order 106 solar masses and much smaller than for quasars.

    From the list of blackholes one gets an idea about the masses of galactic BHEs. Typically masses are considerably lower than quasar masses. There is however lenticular (between elliptic and spiral galaxy having disk but not spiral structure) galaxy NGC 1277 with galactic blackhole with mass about 1.7×1010M(Sun).

    The smaller mass scale makes it is difficult to believe that galactic blackholes could be former quasars. One can also ask whether very old lenticular galaxies, which posses neither spiral structure but have galactic plane could be formed from quasars and whether the central object could be quasar.

These problems challenge the interpretation of quasars as BHEs and TGD suggests an interpretation of all quasars as time reversals of BHEs - whitehole like entities (WHEs). Zero energy ontology (ZEO) of TGD indeed allows time reversed states and the arrow of time changes in ordinary, "big" state function reductions (BSFRs), which in TGD Universe can occur even in astrophysical scales so that even BHEs could be time reversals of WHEs. BSFRs would occur routinely in living matter, and self-organization as a process in apparent conflict with second law could be based on time reversal at magnetic body (MB) carrying dark matter as heff =n×h0 phases. Self-organization would be based on dissipation with reversed arrow of time at MB and violate standard arrow of time. In accordance with experimental facts, it would require energy feed since the creation of states with non-standard value of heff requires energy feed.

ZEO allows to imagine two solutions to the problem of "too-young-to- be-so-heavy" problem.

  1. Quasars could be WHEs (see this) and they would feed matter to environment rather that eating it (there was not much to eat yet!). The dark energy and matter of a tangled of cosmic string would transform to ordinary matter eventually creating the visible galaxy as the tangle thickens to magnetic flux tube and loses its energy. The predecessors of quasars would be generated during inflationary period as tangles of cosmic strings of primordial cosmology started to thicken and Einsteinian space-time with 4-D M4 projection in M4×CP2 was created. Before this it was 2-D string world sheet. The fog, presumably hydrogen around the quasar formed from cosmic string energy, was formed from the energy of cosmic string.

    The huge energy emission by quasars could accompany a reduction of length scale dependent cosmological constant leading to the emission of volume energy whose density is proportional to cosmological constant.

  2. One can also imagine that quasars were indeed BHEs which got their mass from the material produced by the decaying cosmic strings before stars were even formed. This would be less radical option than a) and require that BHEs of galactic nuclei started to form much later than quasars and have therefore much smaller masses. They are however present in all elliptic galaxies except dwarfs. Elliptic galaxies are rather old and could have perhaps formed as self-intersections of the flux tube tangle giving rise to the elliptic galaxy.

Remark: An interesting but unrelated question is whether the energy of cosmic string was liberated as leptons and quarks later and transformed to baryonic matter outside the strings. Or whether the annihilation and generation of baryons and leptons occurred already inside cosmic strings thickened to flux tubes. Flux tubes are not thick: their radius correlates with the value of length scale dependent cosmological constant. For the "cosmological" cosmological constant the radius is only of the order of size of large neuron. In solar interior it corresponds to electron Compton length for dark matter and to proton Compton length for ordinary baryonic matter.

See the article TGD View about Quasars or the article Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Cosmic strings and angular momentum problem of general relativity

Some comments about Vladimir Nechitailo's World-Universe model (thanks to Vladimir for asking comments). In particular a reaction to the claim

"The angular momentum problem is one of the most critical problems in BBM. Standard Cosmology cannot explain how Galaxies and Extra Solar systems obtained their substantial orbital and rotational angular momenta, and why the orbital momentum of Jupiter is considerably larger than the rotational momentum of the Sun. WUM is the only cosmological model in existence that is consistent with the Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum. ".

I cannot quite agree with this statement.

I have not explicitly considered the problem of large angular momenta in TGD. I do not think that the problem is non-conservation - note however that general relativity has problem with classical conservation laws which led to the idea about space-times as surfaces in M4×S.

The challenge is to explain naturally the large angular momenta which - as I remember - obey the analog of stringy mass formula: mass squared proportional to angular momentum. In TGD framework monopole flux tubes made possible by the homology of CP2 lead to a picture in which cosmic strings with huge string tension carrying magnetic and volume energy thicken to flux tubes, and in this process lose magnetic energy transform to ordinary matter.

Cosmic strings explain dark matter and energy: galaxies are associated as tangles to long cosmic strings and the gravitational field of long cosmic string explains the flat velocity spectrum of distant stars. I recently constructed a detailed model for the spiral galaxies and the rotation of the galactic matter around the long cosmic string explains the large angular momenta. For halo models one does not obtain this prediction. Large angular momenta are of course associated also to distant stars with constant velocity.

WUM is in TGD replaced with cosmic strings as non-Einsteinian 4-D space-times surfaces with with 2-D M4 projection and complex manifold of CP2 as CP2 projection would dominate the primordial cosmology transforming to radiation dominated cosmology by the thickening of M4 projection of cosmic string to 4-D. This period would be analog of inflation. Dark matter corresponds heff=n×h0 phases at flux tubes present in all scales - even biological and also hadronic as remnants of primordial period.

See for instance the articles Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars and A model for the formation of galaxies .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Still about quantum measurement theory in ZEO

The relation between zero energy ontology (ZEO) based quantum measurement theory and adelic vision could be much clearer. The following considerations suggest a more precise picture about cognitive representations and formulation of quantum measurement theory for them.

In the sequel ZEO based theory of consciousness (see this) as quantum measurement theory is discussed first by starting with a criticism of physicalism and after that introducing ZEO based view about consciousness as quantum measurement theory as a solution to the problems of physicalism.

After this the relation between zero energy ontology (ZEO) based quantum measurement theory and adelic vision (see this) is discussed. The considerations suggest a more precise picture about cognitive representations and formulation of quantum measurement theory for them. One can generalize classical cognitive representations as number theoretical discretizations of space-time surfaces in the extension of rationals considered to their quantum counterparts as wave functions in the Galois group of the extension and introduce also fermions as spinors in the group algebra of Galois group. The strongest option is purely number theoretical representations of spinors as spinors in this group algebra. Presumably however M8 spinors are required and have interpretation in terms of octonion structure.

An attractive vision is that number theoretical quantum measurements reduce to measurement cascades involving a sequence of state function reductions reducing the entanglement between wave functions in sub-Galois group H and group G/H and ends up to a prime Galois group for group algebra has prime dimension and represents Hilbert space prime not decomposable to tensor product.

Also time measurement is considered from the number theoretic perspective assuming M8-H duality (see this). Clock readings are realized as roots of the rational polynomial determining the space-time surface in M8. Time measurement would involve a localization to a definite extension of rationals, whose dimension n must be proportional to the temporal distance T between the tips of causal diamond (CD) to guarantee fixed time and energy resolution.

See the article Still about quantum measurement theory in ZEO.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Still about the topology of elementary particles and hadrons

In its recent form TGD allows several options for the model of elementary particles (see this). I wrote this piece of text because I got worried about details of the definition of wormhole contact appearing as basic building brick of elementary particle.

  1. Wormhole contacts in 4-D sense (having Euclidian signature of induced metric) modellable as deformed pieces of CP2 type extremals connecting Minkowskian space-time sheets (representable as graphs of a map M4→ CP2) are identified basic building bricks of elementary particles. 3-D light-like orbits of 2-D wormhole throats- partonic 2-surfaces - at which the signature of induced metric changes from Euclidian to Minkowskian - partonic orbits - are assumed to be carriers of elementary particle quantum numbers.

  2. One can identify simplest wormhole contact as topological sum: two surfaces touch each other. Remove 3-D regions from both space-time sheets and connecting the topologically identical boundaries with a cylinder X2× D1, where X2 has the topology of the boundary characterized by genus. The assumption that X2 is boundary requires that its projection to CP2 is homologically trivial. This is not consistent with the assumption that the flux tube carries monopole flux. These wormhole contacts are unstable and must be distinguished from wormhole contacts mediating monopole flux. I have not however defined the notion precisely enough.

  3. One can consider several situations in which homologically non-trivial wormhole contact appears.

    Option I: Assume that the 3-D time=constant sections of 2 Minkowskian space-time sheets are glued together along their boundaries to form a closed 2-sheeted surface and the throats of wormhole contact - partonic 2-surfaces - serve as magnetic charges creating opposite fluxes. One can say that the two throats have opposite homology charges and therefore form a homologically trivial 2-surface to which one can glue the wormhole contact along its boundaries. The flux at sheet B could be seen as return flux from sheet A and the throat could be seen as very short monopole flux tube.

    Option II: Assume no gluing along boundaries for the 3-D time=constant sections of 2 Minkowskian space-time sheets. In this case one must assume at least two wormhole contacts to get vanishing homology charges at both sheets. At both space-time sheets the throats of the contacts with opposite homology charges would be connected by monopole fluxes flowing through the wormhole contacts identifiable as a very short monopole flux tube. This makes sese also for the Option I and might be required since is not clear whether space-time having boundaries carrying monopole flux can be glued together.

    Remark: One can also consider the light-like orbit of partonic 2-surface connecting its ends (the minimal distance between partonic 2-surfaces vanishes). The homology charges of ends are opposite in ZEO.

The proper identification of the model of elementary particles remains still open (see this and this). What relevance do these two options this picture have to the model of elementary particles?

  1. For Option I leptons and gauge bosons could be identified as single wormhole contact carrying non-trivial homology flux. The size scale of the closed space-time sheet would correspond to the Compton wavelength of the particle. This model is the simplest one at the level of scattering diagrams and was re-considered in the article SUSY in TGD framework.

    Even Euclidian regions of single space-time sheet with vanishing homology charge can be considered as a model for leptons and gauge bosons. In this case it is however not clear how to understand how the size scale of the particle as Compton length could be understood at space-time level. This model was one of the first models. I have also considered the identification of the particle as boundary component of Minkowskian space-time surface.

  2. Option II was assumed in the model following the original model for leptons and gauge bosons. It was also proposed that electroweak confinement as dual description of massivation takes place in the sense that the weak charges associated with the two wormhole contacts cancel each other. The size scale of flux tube at given sheet would correspond to the Compton length assignable to the particle. In this case scattering amplitudes are more complex topologically.

What about baryons?
  1. The simplest model assumes that quarks do not differ from leptons and gauge bosons in any manner. The contribution of the quarks to masses of hadrons is very small fraction of total mass, which suggests that color flux tubes carrying also homology charge are present and give the dominating contribution.

    One can also consider a structure formed by color magnetic monopole flux tubes carrying most of the hadron mass with Minkowskian signature carrying flux of 2 units branching to two flux tubes carrying 1 unit each. The flux tubes would have length given by hadronic p-adic length scale. The ends of flux tubes would be wormhole throats connected by wormhole contacts to the mirror image of this structure. One can say that homology charges 2,-1,-1 assignable to the throats of single space-time sheet sum up to zero. This brings in mind color hypercharge. Could color confinement have vanishing of homology charge as classical space-time correlate?

  2. In the proposal for the TGD based realization of space-time supersymmetry and the notion of super-space I considered two alternative identification of leptons. Leptons and quarks could correspond to the different chiralities of M4× CP2 spinors and lepton and baryon numbers would be separately conserved. For second option leptons would b local 3-quark composites and therefore analogous to spartners of quarks: this option is possible only in TGD framework and the reason is that color is not spin-like quantum number in TGD framework. Baryon and lepton numbers would not be separately conserved.

    One can ask what could be the simplest mechanism inducing the decay of baryon as 3-quark composite involving only 3 wormhole contacts and giving lepton as a local 3-quark composite plus something. Wormhole throats of 3 quarks carrying the quark quantum numbers should fuse together to form a leptonic wormhole throat, and the 3 quark lines representing boundaries of string world sheets should fuse to single line. If the sum of quark homology charges is vanishing, lepton must have a vanishing homology charge unless the reaction involves also a step taking care of the conservation of homology charge as a decay of the resulting wormhole contact with vanishing monopole flux to two wormhole contacts with opposite monopole fluxes. Already the first step of the decay process is quite complex, and one can hope that the rate for the reaction is slow enough.

See the article SUSY in TGD framework or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Evidence for 3 different temperatures at Milky Way halo

The TGD based model for Milky Way suggests the presence of 3 cosmic strings thickened to flux tubes. Galactic disk has indeed 3 components with different thickness. There is support for the presence of 3 components also in the Milky Way halo (see this), thanks to Wes Johnson for the link) as gas at different temperatures, and perhaps assignable to 3 different cosmic strings.

The information was gained by studying X rays from a blazar, very active energetic core of a distant galaxy emitting intense beams of light. The blazar was at distance of 5 billion light years. The light passed through the galactic halo and the temperature of the halo was determined from the properties of light received at Earth.

The halo was expected to have single temperature in the range between 104-106 K. It was however found to contain 3 components at different temperatures, and the hottest component had temperature about 107 K. The unexpectedly high temperature is proposed to be due to the winds emanating from the disc of stars of MW. It was also found that the halo contains besides hydrogen also significant amounts of heavier elements suggesting that the halo has received material created by certain stars during their lifetime and final stages.

In TGD framework "cold fusion" (see this) outside stellar interiors could have generated at least part of the heavier elements. "Cold fusion" proceeds by a formation of dark nuclei identifiable as dark nucleon sequences at magnetic flux tubes with heff/h≈ mp/me∼ 2000 and having radius of electron Compton length. Nuclear binding energy is scaled down by a factor of about 1/2000 to keV range. Dark nuclei would have transformed to ordinary nuclei liberating practically all nuclear binding energy outside stellar nuclei. This process would serve as a kind of warm-up band in the pre-stellar evolution leading eventually to the ordinary fusion (see this).

See the article A model for galaxy formation or the chapter Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Direct astrophysical evidence for monopole flux tubes

Monopole flux is the key property of flux tubes proposed to be behind various astrophysical structures. Is there any direct evidence for this? Evidence has emerged for the existence of giant clouds with size about 100 AU in the vicinity of the supermassive GBHE of Milky Way (see this and this). These objects - called G objects - look like gas clouds but behave like stars. G objects stretch longer when nearer to GBHE but get their original shape when farther away. One would expect that they are torn apart by the enormous tidal forces created by GBHE.

The identification could be as visible matter assignable to a spaghetti like structure formed by monopole like flux tube, which could have also produced the visible matter in the thickening of the flux tube. By flux conservation the monopole flux prevents the flux tubes from splitting even in the huge gravitational field of supermassive GBHE. Without monopole flux tubes to which visible matter is gravitationally bound the structure would be torn to pieces. In Maxwellian world monopole flux tubes are not possible. In biology the behavior of gels (the contents of an egg is the basic example) could be based on monopole flux tubes connecting the cells together.

See the article A model for galaxy formation
or the chapter Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

A model for the formation of galaxies

I have proposed a general vision about galaxy formation as formation of tangles on cosmic strings carrying monopole flux. The strings can be long and also short. In the case of long string the model explains flat velocity spectrum of distant stars automatically. For closed short strings the velocity spectrum is not flat. There is however no detailed model for the galaxy formation. In particular, the complex structure of spiral galaxies is poorly understood. Even the question whether there is single long cosmic string orthogonal to the galactic plane or cosmic string parallel to the spiral structure in galactic plane - as proposed decades ago in the original model - or both has remained open. In the sequel I make an attempt to collect the essential facts about elliptic and spiral galaxies and consider a qualitative model for the galaxy formation consistent with these facts. The goal is rather modest: just to develop an internally consistent view about the evolution of galaxies.

  1. The simplest model for elliptic galaxy is as a closed string possibly reconnected as a loop from long string or as a tangle of a cosmic string having topology analogous to that of field lines of dipole magnetic field. Quasar would have preceded the formation of the tangle in which string would have thickened to flux tube and dark energy would have transformed to ordinary matter. Quasars would be time reversal of galactic blackhole like entity (GBHE).

  2. In the case of spiral galaxies the existence of vast polar structures (VPOS) in the plane orthogonal to the galactic plane of spiral galaxy (see this) strongly suggest that two cosmic strings are involved and that the spiral structure believed to correspond to a standing wave analogous to traffic jam is associated with dark matter of a long cosmic string. This model conforms with the fact that the stars of spiral galaxies are older than those of elliptic galaxies except inside the bulge.

    The asymmetry between the two planes suggests that the spiral arms are formed when an elliptic galaxy identified as a tangle of a long string S|| formed via a quasar stage in the galactic plane has collided with a cosmic string S orthogonal to the galactic plane. These collisions are unavoidable for non-parallel strings and gravitational attraction causes the needed relative motion.

    The differential rotation of portion of S|| around S would have deformed S|| to a spiral shape. S|| would have also generated the visible spiral arm pair in the transformation of dark energy to ordinary matter. Galactic bulge would correspond to the elliptic galaxy and galactic blackhole like entity (GBHE) would have formed from the matter in bulge: this conforms with the fact that elliptic galaxies have always galactic blackhole. The galactic bar could be analogous to the dipole of dipole magnetic field. In principle also the string orthogonal to the galactic plane could produce ordinary matter by thickening.

One open question relates to the fact that TGD predicts two kinds of cosmic strings with closed transverse cross section and having vanishing induced Kähler field or non-vanishing induced Kähler form carrying monopole flux. The latter are stable against splitting by the conservation of the monopole flux and have no counterpart in Maxwellian electrodynamics. The monopole flux tubes could correspond to the cosmic strings giving rise to galaxies, stars, and even planets as tangles. Non-monopole flux tubes might serve as gravitational flux tubes mediating gravitational interactions. Presumably both kinds of flux tubes are involved but their precise roles are not well-understood.

See the article A model for the formation of galaxies or the chapter Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, January 09, 2020

Lense effect as support for TGD view about galaxies

Cosmology an also other fields of physics with one exception - particle physics - produces fascinating results on daily basis. It is really a pity that particle physicists living in the jail of their reductionistic world view cannot pay any attention to these discoveries and continue moaning that there is no data so that it impossible to go beyond standard model. Bad philosophy can kill entire field of science. Having replaced Planck length scale reductionism by fractality I can enjoy swimming in the flood of anomalies.

The surprise of this morning was a popular article about a detection of dark matter lumps by Hubble telescope. The discovery is based on gravitational lense effect. The popular article tells about light coming distant quasars - distance is about 10 million light years. At the path of light coming to Earth there is foreground galaxy - distance is about 2 million light years. They are reported to give rise to four separate images of the galaxy by lense effect.

I am however wondering why one observes four images of each quasar by foreground galaxy. My naive expectaton would be a ring if dark matter halo gives rise to the lensing. Tell me if I am wrong.

It is also stated that the number of images depends on how many different dark matter particles there exists. I must admit that I do not understand. I would be happy for explanation.

What says TGD?

  1. If galaxies are associated with long cosmic strings as tangles as in TGD Universe, flat velocity spectrum is automatically predicted without any other assumptions and velocity spectrum determines string tension. See and .

  2. Long cosmic string would give rise to two separate images in lensing effect rather than ring as halo would do. Two long foreground cosmic strings with different directions - say being nearly orthogonal - would give rise to four images. Two cosmic strings could be assigned with fusion of two galaxies associated with separate cosmic strings.

  3. The two cosmic strings could be assigned with fusion of two galaxies associated with separate cosmic strings. One can consider the possibility that visible galaxies are formed as two cosmic strings collide: this would give rise to instability initiating the thickening of the 2-D M4 projection of cosmic string and formation of tangles associated with both cosmic strings. Magnetic energy would be liberated and transform to ordinary matter giving rise to the visible matter of galaxy. For instance, could the 4 spiral arms of Milky way could relate to the second cosmic string in the plane of Milky way tangled around the second cosmic string orthogonal to the plane of Milky Way?

    One can consider also a situation in which there is no foreground galaxy but just two cosmic strings and this might provide a test for TGD view.

See the article Two interesting findings related to dark energy and galactic dark matter or the chapter Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, January 08, 2020

Comparing Gisin's intuitionistic mathematics with adelic physics

Nikolina Benedikovic had an interesting posting commenting the work of physicist Nicolas Gisin. Gisin makes several strange looking statements.

  1. Gisin states that physicists apply classical physics, which is deterministic. This is of course true. They however apply also quantum physics, which involves non-deterministic state function reduction in conflict with the determinism of Schrödinger equation but is necessary for the interpretation of experiments. Statistical determinism is assumed but requires the notion of ensemble.

  2. Gisin claims and numbers with infinite number of decimals involve infinite number of information. This is not the case in general. For instance, if the decimals obey some formula the information is finite. Also rationals have infinite number of decimals but the the sequence of decimals is periodic so that the information content can be said to be finite.

  3. Gisin claims that the world is finite. Presumably he means that world is discrete and consists of finite number of points. This picture leads to insurmountable difficulties in practice.

    I believe that it is not world which is discrete but the cognitive representations about it. They are always discrete and in computer science based on the use of finite rational numbers reducing to pairs of integers. What is wrong with recent day physics is that cognition together with consciousness is kept out from consideration. Finite measurement resolution is described in ad hoc manner.

  4. Intuitionistic mathematics is the proposal of Gisin in which everything is finite. Finite number of decimals brings in indeterminism and Gisin argues that this number increases with time - kind of evolution.

It is interesting to compare this with TGD view.
  1. Finite measurement resolution instead of finite world looks to me a more realistic option. Classical realities - say space-time surfaces in TGD - are continua but our observations are always discrete because of finite observational and cognitive resolution.

  2. Gisin's approach excludes algebraic numbers. In TGD also algebraic numbers are allowed - essentially as roots of polynomials and are represented geometrically - say sqrt(2) as the length of the diagonal of square. Geometric representations complete the linear representations of numbers based on sequences of digits. This corresponds to the reductionistic-holistic dichotomy or left brain-right brain dichotomy.

  3. Cognition has as correlates p-adic numbers and their extensions induced by those of rationals- one can speak of -p-adic variants of space-time surfaces. This leads to what I call adelic physics (see also this). Cognitive representations correspond to points of space-time surface common to both real and p-adic space-time surfaces with preferred imbedding space coordinates (by symmetries) having values in extension of rationals and making sense in all number fields involved. They are essentially unique for given extension and the representation is in generic case discrete and even finite. These unique discretizations in the intersection of reality and various p-adicities are the TGD counterpart for intuitionism.

    Remark: Interestingly, the extension of rationals by powers of Neper number e or its root induces finite-D extension of p-adic numbers. So that also roots of e could be allowed by cognitive representations with finite resolution just like roots of unity. They would be very exceptional transcendentals.

  4. In TGD framework cognitive resolution is characterized by the n and the number N(p) of pinary digits and to the integer n. The mathematics of cognition is discrete and analogous to intuitionistic mathematics. n measures algebraic complexity and is kind IQ. n actually corresponds to effective Planck constant h_eff =nh_0 and measures quantum coherence scale in TGD framework so that a direct connecting with quantum physics allowing dark matter in TGD sense emerges.

  5. Gisin compares the increase of decimals as a process analogous to evolution. In TGD evolution would reduce to an unavoidable increase of n and N(p).

To sum up, the indeterminism about which Gisin talks would thus correspond to finite measurement and cognitive resolution in TGD framework. This indeterminism is in certain sense a correlate also for quantum non-determinism. For instance, geometric time order of "small" state function reductions (weak measurements) in events in zero energy ontology can vary and this variation corresponds classically to the lack of well-ordering for p-adic numbers.

Indeed, as one types text one often finds that the experienced order of digits as sequence of small state function reductions is different from that for the outcome representing corresponding sequence of moments of geometric time: you experience typing "outcome" but the result is "outocme"! Neuroscientist would of course invent other explanations.

See this and this .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Tuesday, January 07, 2020

A model for protocell based on Pollack effect

I learned about extremely interesting Quanta Magazine article telling about findings related to water droplets as protocells able to perform chemical metabolism as a transfer of molecules to exterior and back.

The work is doen by David Zwicker and collaborators at the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems and the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, both in Dresden. The work is published in Nature Physics.

In a simplified model for the droplets (P-granules in C-elegans cell is the real life example) the proteins in droplet can be in two states: in state A the stay in droplet and do not get out but can enter to the droplet from outside. In state B they can get out from droplet. To get into state B energy such as sunlight would be required.

The model has real life realization!

  1. The exclusion zones (EZs) discovered by Pollack (see this) behave just like this. For TGD based model see this. The formation of EZs requires water bounded by a gel phase and they are negatively charged. Their really strange feature is that they throw out impurities just like state B in the model: this seems to defy second law telling that gradients tend to disappear. This makes possible primitive chemical metabolism involving exchange of chemicals between droplet and exterior. Light signal initiating the transfer by providing the metabolic energy needed. Transfer would stop as light signal stops.

    In TGD inspired quantum biology EZs are in crucial role. For instance, cell is negatively charged as also DNA double strand. Interpretation as EZs is natural.

  2. The explanation for the negative charge of EZ is that part of protons and possibly other ions go to magnetic flux tubes forming the magnetic body (MB) of the system (see this). Dark ions form phases with nonstandard value heff=n×h0>h of effective Planck constant as cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates. This system has long length scale quantum coherence and serves as a master controlling bio-chemistry, which is in the role of slave. This forces the mysterious coherence of the ordinary bio-matter impossible in life-as-mere-chemistry approach.

  3. MB could control chemical metabolism of the droplet by sending dark photons to the droplet transforming to bio-photons and generating EZ state in the droplet and initiating transfer of molecules to the outside. The transition reducing the value of heff at MB would bring protons back to EZ droplet and it would become normal again. Secpnd law would force the molecules from outside to diffuse back to the droplet.

  4. There is still one hard problem to be solved. What causes the mysterious removal of impurities from EZ challenging second law? Here zero energy ontology (ZEO) comes in rescue (see this). In ZEO macroscopic quantum jump corresponding to ordinary state function reduction changes the arrow of time . This would occur to MB as EZ is formed. Second law holds still true but in reverse time direction. MB is the boss and forces time reversal also at the level of ordinary bio-matter. The usual diffusion of molecules to cell occurs but with reverse arrow of time and explains the mysterious removal of impurities observed by Pollack for EZs.

All biological self-assembly processes would use this mechanism. In fact, self-organization quite generally would be dissipation in reverse direction of time: this would explain self-assembly aspect of self-organization. The big quantum jumps would inducing change of the arrow of time would tend to increase of heff in statistical sense (heff is identifiable number theoretically essentially as dimension of extension of rationals and bound to increase). This would correspond to the evolutionary aspect of self-organization. The increase of heff requires energy since the energy of state increases with heff with other parameters kept constant. Energy feed is therefore needed.

See the article A model of protocell based on Pollack effect, the article Some applications of TGD inspired quantum biology: bio-chemistry, metabolism, replication, or the chapter Getting philosophical: some comments about the problems of physics, neuroscience, and biology.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, January 06, 2020

Findings challenging the notion of dark energy

Nikolina Benedikovic gave a very interesting link to a popular article describing a finding challenging the notion of dark energy.

This finding is very interesting since twistor lift of TGD predicts length scale dependent cosmological constant.

I try to collect the basic facts first.

  1. Standard candle property is essential assumption leading to dark energy hypothesis. It states that the distance corrected luminosity of SN Ia supernovae does not evolve with redshift that it is it depends only on distance. See .

  2. Observation: The luminosity of SN Ia supernova correlates strongly with the population age of the host galaxy. The luminosity thus depends on the environment provided by the host galaxy.

  3. This is in conflict with the standard candle property if the population age of the host galaxy decreases with distance. This is obvious in standard cosmology. But is this true in TGD Universe obeying zero energy ontology (ZEO)?

In ZEO the situation might be different. ZEO provides a quantum measurement theory solving the basic paradox of standard quantum measurement theory and leads to a theory of consciousness.
  1. The first prediction is that geometric time and experienced time identified as sequence of "small" state function reductions (SSFRs as counterparts of weak measurements) are not same. This is of course an empirical fact - thermodynamical time is irreversible unlike geometric time, etc... but in standard ontology these times are identified. See http://tgdtheory.f/public_html/articles/zeoquestions.pdf .

  2. In small state function reductions (SSFRs) as counterparts of weak measurements) arrow of time does not change and their sequence defines self as conscious entity. In big (ordinary) state function reductions (BSFRs) the system "dies" and reincarnates with opposite arrow of time. The experiments of Minev et all provide direct support for ZEO in atomic systems. Libet's findings support this in neuroscience. See http://tgdtheory.f/public_html/articles/Bohrdead.pdf .

  3. Assume that the size of the causal diamond (CD) decreases in "reincarnation" that is self experiences "childhood". If so the size of CD can remain bounded. Irrespective of this assumption the temporal center of mass position of CD in imbedding space H=M^4xCP_2 remains the same during the sequence of reincarnations.

    !!Most importantly: the steady motion towards future assumed in standard ontology with single arrow of time is replaced with forth-and-back motion in time with constant cm position of CD in H.

  4. ZEO explains several time anomalies such stars older than the universe and the observation that the nuclear abundances of very distance stars seem to have nearly their modern values supporting the view that the population age of galaxy does not depend significantly on distance (see this) .

    In particular, the age distribution for the populations of galaxies would not depend significantly on distance - standard candle hypothesis would be saved!

See the article Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Musings on the Current Status of HEP

Peter Woit had a posting titled "Musings on the Current Status of HEP" commenting the article of particle physicist Misha Shifman having the same title. Shifman's conclusion is that HEP represents a dead branch in the tree of science. There is no doubt that Shifman will have followers since most particle physicists and also those in other fields know the situation and telling the the ugly truth is not so dangerous anymore.

I remember when the first superstring revolution took place 1984. Sheldon Glashow, who shared with Salam and Weinberg Nobel from the development of standard model - was one of those who realized from the beginning what might be the consequences. I had published my thesis 1982 and was convinced that it would not take more than a couple of years before strings would be replaced with 3-D surfaces. I was wrong.

One of the comments made by Glashow later was " may call it a tumor, if you will..." . It was indeed a tumor, which spread almost instantaneously. 10 years later when it had already become clear that superstrings did not provide the unique theory of everything. M-theory emerged. At this time censorship was established in arXiv as also I had to painfully learn. This made impossible communication of ideas and turned out to be lethal for HEP: science cannot make progress under censorship.

Eventually the original vision about unique theory was replaced with its opposite. Landscape as set of solutions to the cosmological constant problem around 1997, and meant that there is in practice no hope for a theory able to predict anything. Two decades ago it became clear that there is actually no landscape, the desired solutions simply do not exist. Now Swampland is the fashion. The sad outcome of this Odysseia lasting for a quarter of century was the death of HEP.

It would be important to analyze carefully the sociology of super-string revolution to avoid similar catastrophes in future.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, January 05, 2020

Correlation between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions with the spin dynamics of Earth

Wes Johnson send a link (this) telling about te correlation between the dynamics of Earth's spin and earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. There are two directions involved corresponding to geographic axis and rotation axis. The direction of Earth's magnetic field defines the geographic axis. These events tend to occur and are largest when the angle between Earth's rotation axis and geographic (magnetic) axis is largest. This is is an excellent benchmark test for TGD based view about magnetic fields.

The new findings might have a connection with the TGD inspired solution of several other mysteries.

  1. Quantal effects of radiation at ELF frequencies on vertebrate brain discovered by Blackman and others. Photon energies are ridiculously small: there should be no effects.

  2. Maintenance problem of Earth's magnetic field.

  3. Why the direction of Earth's magnetic field is different from that for the rotation axis which is a natural direction
    for convective plasma currents?

  4. What causes the precession of Earth's rotation axis? The explanation in terms of gravitational effects fails.

  5. There are time anomalies associated with earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Cause and effect seem to be in wrong order.

Earth's magnetic field should have disappeared long time ago. TGD based solution relies on difference between magnetic fields in Maxwellian theory and TGD:
  1. TGD provides a solution to the maintenance problem (see this).

    In TGD framework magnetic field has two parts.

    1. Monopole flux tube part with strength Bend = about .2 Gauss (BEhas nominal value of .5 Gauss). The existence of Bend is deduced from the effects of radiation at ELF frequencies on vertebrate brain (Problem 1). It would carry dark matter in TGD sense (heff=n× h0 phases of ordinary matter) and be crucial in biology. This part needs no current to maintain it and this solves the maintenance problem for Earth's BE having nominal value BE= .5 Gauss (Problem 2).

    2. Second part Bord is the ordinary Maxwellian part and currents are needed to maintain it since it decays exponentially due to the dissipation of the currents. The change of the direction of monopole flux induces currents refreshing Bord. Just now monopole flux part is changing direction and this causes the direction of Bord part to change: magnetic North Pole is moving towards Siberia rather fast. A good first guess for the direction of Bord is the rotation axis of Earth.

      It would not be surprising if the difference between directions of Bend and Bord would have physical effects and that the effects occur when Θ becomes large enough. The size of the effects would naturally increase as Θ increases. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions could be these effects.

      Remark: The direction of monopole flux part is not that of geographic axis since it represents direction of the entire magnetic field having nominal value BE=0.5 Gauss. The angle Θ between Bend and rotation axis is larger than that of geographic and rotational axis.

  2. Monopole flux tubes provide also a solution to the precession problem (see this).

    The change of the direction of monopole part Bend inducing change of the rotation axis could be due to the change direction of flux tubes in much longer length scale than that of Earth. Precession of the rotation axis could be the outcome and precession would not be caused by gravitational effects in solar system. TGD explanation involves magnetic flux tubes and dark matter in TGD sense in much larger scale than that of Earth.

  3. TGD suggests also a solution to the time anomalies associated with earthquakes and volcanic eruptions (see this).

    Zero energy ontology (ZEO) is the corner stone of TGD based quantum measurement theory solving its basic paradox and allowing to extend it to a theory of consciousness. ZEO changes profoundly the views about the relationship between experienced time and geometric time. The arrow of time changes in the counterpart of the ordinary state function reduction and is preserved in the counterpart of weak measurement.

    1. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions would be induced by macroscopic quantum jumps - ordinary state function reductions in ZEO - involving large value of heff=nh0 and its change at the level of magnetic body (MB) of the system. MB would correspond to flux tubes of Bend.

    2. In ZEO these quantum jumps change the arrow of time temporarily at the level of MB involved and induce effects in "wrong" direction of time also at the level of ordinary matter. Indeed, ELF radiation has been observed before the earthquake as it would cause the earthquake it - not very realistic sounding idea - and could therefore used to predict the Earth quakes.

      The original model however predicted that ELF should occur after the earthquake as is indeed very natural. The ZEO based explanation of the paradox is that the arrow of time changes at MB. This would be the effect observed by Minev et al (this) in atomic systems but in macroscopic scale. Also Libet's finding that neural activity seems to precede conscious decision would be similar illusion and at the same time proof the the idea that act of free will corresponds to macroscopic quantum jump in ZEO.

This picture suggests an understanding of the correlation between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and the dynamics of Earth's spin. As noticed, the macroscopic quantum jumps associated with changes of directions of Bend and Bord are expected to cause more dramatic effects when the deviation between the Bend and Bord (rotation axis) is largest. The angle Θ would change in these events. If Bend flux tubes change direction, a current is induced. This would change the direction of rotation axis if it is same as the direction of convective current generating Bord.

Question: Could the precession of the rotation axis consist of small steps changing the directions of Bend and Bord and their relative direction and be associated to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions?

See the article New support for the view about Cambrian explosion being caused by rapid increase of Earth radius or the chapter Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, January 02, 2020

EMC effect in nuclear string model

Thanks to Wes Johnson for a link to EMC effect. See also Wikipedia article at and second popular article.

These articles refer to the publication of CLAS Collaboration relating to EMC effect (see this). The conclusion of the research group is that the formation of correlated nucleon pairs leads to the observed surprisigly strong modification of quark structure functions insided nucleon.

Since deep inelastic scattering (DIS) occurs for large momentum exchanges (few GeV) and nuclear physics energy scale (few MeV) is much lower, one would expect that the nucleus behaves as a collection of free nucleons in DIS. Therefore EMC effect was a surprise. The distribution for longitudinal momenta of quarks inside nucleons inside nuclei deduced from the experiments seemed to differ dramatically from that for free nucleons. Nuclear binding would have large effect on quark behavior.

Very roughly, the ratio for the probabilities fFe(x) and fD(x) of quark to have momentum fraction x in Fe and D is not constant equal to 1 as expected (and thus independent on the size of nucleus) but decreases almost linearly for x in range .3-.7. In heavier nuclei large longitudinal momentum fractions seem to be less probable. Somehow the quarks would be slowed down and small values of x would become more favored. The effect becomes stronger in heavier nuclei as the figure 1 of the Wikipedia article comparing the effect for D and Fe demonstrates.

The model of CLAS group assumes that there are strong short range correlations between nucleons in nuclei. About 20 per cent of nucleons would have these correlations at given moment of time. One might say that they are stuck together.

The TGD based proposal based on nuclear string model (see this and this) is somewhat different. Formation of di-nucleons would occur as the nuclear flux tube touches itself. This implies a de-localization of quark color to the volume of di-nucleon formed by color confinement. Di-nucleons would consist of 3 di-quarks forming anti-color triplets and also meson-like quark pair is needed. The longitudinal momenta of quarks inside di-quark would be same and this constraint would reduces degrees of freedom. The distribution functions for the longitudinal momentum fraction of di-quark could be same as that for quarks.

See the article EMC effect in nuclear string model or the chapter Nuclear string model.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Year 2019 in TGD

The last year has been a period of progress in TGD (as also the previous years actually). In the following I try to summarize key points concerning theoretical advances and applications to various findings challenging the standard views.

A. Theoretical progress in physics-as-geometry vision

A.1. SUSY and TGD

What the notion of space-time supersymmetry (SUSY) could mean in TGD has been a longstanding problem and I have made several attempts to identify SUSY.

  1. TGD allows super-conformal invariance at the level of WCW geometry but it has not been clear whether something analogous to SUSY could emerge. The notion of super-space is conceptually extremely elegant although it could be blamed to be very formal and have no real geometric content. Is it possible to generalize this notion to TGD framework.

    The basic technical problem is that Majorana spinors do not make sense in TGD since fermion number is conserved. In the scenario considered hitherto both quark and lepton numbers - are conserved and correspond to different chiralities of H-spinor fields.

  2. The dramatic step in progress occurred with the realization that the notion of super-field can be generalized and naturally leads to a scenario in which leptons can be seen as local composites of quarks so that quarks would be the only fundamental fermions. SUSY would have been staring us directly to face for almost century. This also led to a dramatic simplification of the model for the elementary particles meaning return to almost the original picture in which particles correspond to Euclidian regions of space-time surface - so called CP2 type extremals.

  3. There are still open questions. Are elementary particles - maybe even graviton - wormhole contacts connecting two space-time sheets with Minkowskian signature or just Euclidian inside Minkowskian ones as the first model formulated long time ago assumed. It is clear that quarks carry non-trivial homology charge identifiable as effective magnetic charge and it has important role in colof confinement. Leptons and gauge bosons need not have homology charge. Does the monopole flux loop run along single space-time sheet or does it form flattened square type loop running between two space-time sheets through wormhole contact?

See The Recent View about SUSY in TGD Universe.

A.2. More precise view about twistor lift of TGD

The king idea behind twistor lift of TGD is simple.

  1. If the 12-D twistor space assignable to imbedding space has twistor space allowing Kähler structure allowing it is possible to define 6-D Kähler action. This is possible only for H=M4×CP2 and M8 and leads to the introduction of the analog of Kähler structure for M4 predicting CP breaking. Poincare invariance is not lost at the level of moduli space and different octonionic structures for M8 correspond to various Kähler structures for M4
    (or actually DD).

  2. The earlier proposal was that the "geometric" twistor space of M4 is simply M4xS2. It turned out that the standard identification is correct and the scale of the twistor space of M4 endowed with metric (projective space allows metric) corresponds to the scale of CD. It seems that one can assign twistor space also with the Cartesian factors of M8= M4× E4 and perhaps even with M8. These twistorializations seem provide alternative descriptions of physics.

  3. Already earlier it had become clear that cosmological constant emerges naturally in the dimensional reduction for the 6-D Kähler action of 12-D twistor space to 4-D Kähler action plus volume term. The dimensional reduction is necessary in order to induce twistor structure to space-time surface (6-D surface must have structure of S2 bundle).

    The challenge has been to understand the value of the coefficient of volume term - counterpart of cosmological constant Λ - and the new idea is that Λ is determined by the scale of causal diamond (CD) so that a connection with ZEO emerges. Λ thus characterizes the size of CD and thus of space-time surfaces associated with CD.

    See Twistors in TGD, and Twistor lift of TGD and WCW geometry.

  4. The value of Λ should be determined by preferred extremal property and p-adic length scale hypothesis strongly suggests that quantization of cosmological constant as proportional to 1/L(k)2, p≈ 2^k. If p-adic length scale corresponds to ramified prime of extension of rationals, cosmological constant is determined by the extension and one has discrete evolution of Λ. Λ in turn takes the role of length in ordinary coupling constant evolution and induces the evolution of various coupling constants as function of p-adic length scale.

    See Does coupling constant evolution reduce to that of cosmological constant?.

  5. When the notion of local cosmological constant is combined with the idea about cosmic strings thickened to flux tubes carrying dark matter as heff=nh0 phases and forming a fractal hierarchy, one ends up to a rather detailed view about the formation of galaxies and stars as tangles of cosmic strings. In particular, a concrete model for blackhole like objects emerges. This picture predicts that flux tubes thicken in rather rapid phase transitions increasing the size of CD and reducing the value of cosmological constant. This gives rise to accelerated expansion stopping when the increase of volume compensates the reduction of magnetic part of action.

    See the articles

  6. Twistor lift of TGD for M4× CP2 should be dual to the description in terms of M8 which could allow its own twistor lift. Since the dynamics is algebraic at the level of M8 (Λ is replaced with CD size), it is clear that the dynamics determined by partial differential equations at the level of H must involve additional constraints guaranteeing preferred extremal property (analog of Bohr orbit). The condition that extremal of both Kähler action and minimal surface with 2-D string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces as singularities guarantees this. At string world sheets the quaternionic tangent space would degenerate to 2-D one. There are also other formulations for the preferred extremal property.

A.3 Zero energy ontology (ZEO)

A cosiderable progress occurred on both theoretical and experimental side. ZEO based view about generalizes quantum measurement theory to a theory of consciousness. There are two kinds of state function reduction and they are universal rather than assigned only to laboratory quantum measurements. Ordinary - "big"- state function (BSFR) changes the arrow of time whereas "small" state function reduction (SSFR) as counterpart of "weak" measurement very preserved it and is analogous to classical measurement. The life cycle of self consists of a sequences of SSFRs and self dies and reincarnates with opposite arrow of time in BSFR.

  1. What happens for CD - or rather to the wave function in the moduli space of CDs localized around single CD - in BSFR has not been quite clear. Does CD size continue to increase in statistical sense from the size already achieved or is its size reduce so that self would have childhood also in the time reversed life. The latter option looks the only reasonable one. This allow the possibility that the size of CD remains below upper limit and predicts that the objects in the very early universe look like their modern counterparts. Cosmology indeed shows time anomalies such as stars older than the Universe and modern abundances of nuclei in very early Universe.

    See Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars .

  2. Also progress in the understanding of the details related to SSFR has occurred. The complete localization of space-time surfaces inside CD in given SSFR breaks Poincare invariance at quantum level although this symmetry is unbroken classically. Can one require complete localization? Should one allow wave functions in the moduli space of CDs defined by Poincare transforms of the active boundary of CD and consider analogs of Gaussian wave packets having minimal uncertainties with respect to energy and temporal position of active boundary of CD?

    This question leads to a proposal in which the unitary evolutions of wave functions in the moduli space of CDs followed by SSFR are adiabatic in the sense that the coefficients of the state as superposition of analogs of energy energy eigenstates remain invariant although the basic states themselves change. Also an analog of cosmic temperature decreasing during evolution emerges and is inversely proportional to the average size of CD.

    See Some comments related to Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) .

  3. The increase of heff while keeping other parameters constant requires energy. The value of heff also tends to be reduced spontaneously. This leads to the idea that in living matter metabolic energy is needed to increase heff and increase the scale of quantum coherence and also to preserve it.

    Quite generally, self-organization requires feed of energy needed to increase the scale of coherence. This inspires the idea that dark matter at magnetic body of the system serving as master for ordinary matter quite generally is responsible for self-organization in presence of energy feed. Self-assembly aspect of self-organization could be understood as dissipation with non-standard arrow of time and evolutionary aspect due to BSFRs increasing the dimension n= heff/h0 of algebraic extension and evolutionary level in statistical sense.

    See the articles

What about experimental support for ZEO?

  1. Concerning the experimental side, a breakthrough came from the strange findings of Minev et al on state function reduction in atomic systems. If the recent experimental findings by Minev et al are replicable, one is forced to challenge the basic assumption of the standard quantum measurement theory stating that state function reductions occur completely randomly and instantaneously. Rather, state function reduction (SR) looks like a continuous, deterministic process. The findings even suggest that SR gives a detectable warning signal and can be prevented: this would be like Zeno effect.

    Zero energy ontology (ZEO) based view about quantum measurement and the relationship between geometric subjective time could explain why state function reduction looks like a deterministic process and one can apparently anticipate it in TGD framework: this is however an illusion.

    The fact that the absence of the signal inducing quantum jump does not affect the occurrence of quantum jump suggests that the "flight" period indeed represents the classical evolution after the quantum jump in the reversed direction of time so that the absence of the external signal would not anymore affect the situation.

    The most plausible interpretation for the control signal apparently stopping the reduction process is that it induces the reversal of the quantum jump already occurred. A careful analysis to distinguish between subjective and geometric time and arrows of time for the observer and atom would be needed. Interestingly, the Libet's findings that conscious decision is preceded by neural activity could be interpreted in the same manner.

    See Copenhagen interpretation dead: long live ZEO based quantum measurement theory! .

  2. The possibility of macroscopic quantum jumps combined with ZEO predicts macroscopic time anomalies analogous to that found by Minev.

    Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are found to exhibit such anomalies and the ZEO interpretation could be as macroscopic quantum jumps "big" (ordinary) state function reductions as opposed to "small" state function reductions identified as counterparts of weak measurements . The occurrence of these phenomena correlates strongly with sunspot minima, cosmic rays seem to induce them but quite too deep below the Earth's surface, and electromagnetic activity in upper atmosphere precedes rather than follows these phenomena as one might expect.

    See the articles

B. Number theoretical vision

Number theoretic vision is complementary to the geometry based approach to TGD and involves several aspects. p-Adic number fields and their extensions as correlates of cognition is one aspect: this leads to adelic physics. Classical number fields and M8-H duality is second aspect. Infinite primes represent the third aspect.

B.1. Adelic aspects of number theoretical vision

The p-adic aspects of number theoretical vision are formulated in terms of adelic physics. Adele is obtained as analog of Cartesian product of real number fields and various p-adic number fields. The extensions of rationals lead to a hierarchy of adeles with extension of p-adic number fields induced by extension K of rationals. The hierarchy of extensions defines an evolutionary hierarchy and evolution as increase of the dimension of extension in statistical sense is unavoidable in ZEO. BSFRs would give rise to the increase of the dimension of extension.

See The philosophy of adelic physics.

Consider the basic aspects of the adelic vision.

  1. Hierarchy of Planck constants of effective Planck constants heff=n×h0 is the basic prediction. Here n is the dimension of the extension of rationals involved.

  2. The conjecture is that the preferred p-adic primes appearing in p-adic length scale hypothesis correspond to ramified primes of extension of rationals considered.

    See Trying to understand why ramified primes are so special physically.

  3. The dimension of extension of rationals can change in BSFRs and is bound to increase in statistical sense. This implies evolution. One can even speak number theoretical fight for survival. Extensions for which cognitive representations are especially larger could be winners and therefore also corresponding preferred primes as ramified primes of extension.

  4. Prime extensions, which are not extensions of extension could be seen as analogs of genes and the connection with genes could be even more concrete.

B.2 Cognitive representations

Cognitive representations defined as intersections of real and various p-adic space-time sheets and consisting of space-time points with imbedding space coordinates having values in the extension K are the key element of adelic physics. Cognitive representation is highly unique at the level of M8 since the octonionic structure involves a choice of coordinates unique moduli translations in the real coordinate of M8 identifiable as M4 time coordinate.

Cognitive representation are unique for given extension modulo these time translations, which means universal discretization defined by physics itself. Cognitive representations at the level of H are identified as points of space-time surface X4⊂ M4× CP2 having imbedding space coordinates in the extension of rationals defined by the polynomial defined by the M8 pre-image of X4 under M8-H correspondence. The optimal situation would be that in preferred coordinates for H the map by M8-H duality preservesextension and cognitive representation property.

See Are fundamental entities discrete or continuous and what discretization at fundamental level could mean?.

The challenge of identifying cognitive representations for an arbitrary surface looks like a formidable but the physical picture helps considerably.

  1. Finding the cognitive representation for given space-time surface reduces to a classical problem of algebraic geometry. Kim has proposed new ideas in this respect- in particular, the one should consider large number of the counterparts of cognitive representation and that symmetries transforming these representations to each other might play a role in the problem. It seems that these idea fit very nicely with TGD picture. A subgroup of symplectic isometries of δ M4_+ × CP2 act as symmetries and produces new cognitive representations from a given one so that one can speak of an orbit of cognitive representation.

    See Secret Link Uncovered Between Pure Math and Physics.

  2. The preferred extremal property and strong form of holography (SH) suggest that cognitive representations can be restricted to partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets. This give hopes that one can say something non-trivial about them.

  3. One can argue that number theoretic evolution as increase of the dimension of the extension of rationals favors space-time surfaces with especially large cognitive representations since the larger the number of points in the representation is, the more faithful the representation is. By SH it would be enough to consider cognitive representations restricted to partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets.

    What kind of 2-surfaces are the cognitively fittest one? It would not be surprising if surfaces with large symmetries acting in extension were favored and elliptic curves with discrete 2-D translation group indeed turn out to be assignable string world sheets as singularities and string like objects. In the case of partonic 2-surfaces geodesic sphere of CP2 is similar object.

    See When do partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets define large cognitive representations?

Cognitive representations have become key piece in the formulation of scattering amplitudes and in TGD view about consciousness and cognition. In this formulation fermionic anti-commutators reduce to Kronecker deltas ad one avoids the divergence problems caused by the delta functions.

See Scattering amplitudes and orbits of cognitive representations under subgroup of symplectic group respecting the extension of rationals.

B.3 M8-H duality

M8-H duality emerged from the observation that complexified M8 allows octonionic structure. Also H allows number theoretic interpretation, for instance SU(3) as automorphisms of octonions. Space-time surfaces in H obeying dynamics dictated by partial differential equations plus infinite number of analogs of gauge condition expressing preferred extremely property. This lead to the idea of M8-H duality stating that this dynamics is an image of purely algebraic dynamics at the level of M8.

The conjecture is that this dynamics is determined by a simple condition stating the the real or imaginary in quaternionic sense for an octonionic polynomial obtained by algebraically continuing a real polynomial with rational coefficients gives the dynamics at the level of M8 as purely algebraic dynamics involving no partial differential equations.

General vision about M8-H duality is discussed in the following articles. See the articles

M8-H duality means that one one describe particles as having light-like M8-momentum. 8-D light-likeness is essential for the generalization twistor approach so that it applies also to particles massive in M4 sense. 4-D mass would depend on this choice. The basic condition would be that the spectra of CP2-mass squared and E4 mass squared are same and this fixes the choice of M4 to high degree.

For a given massive state one can make M4 mass vanishing by a suitable choice of M4? It seems hower that this change of M4 must be accompanied by a spectral flow shifting the conformal weights by a negative vacuum conformal weight necessary for p-adic mass calculations. Can one consider the possibility that the choice of M4 depends on particle? These are still open questions.

See M8-H duality and the two manners to describe particles

M8-H-duality led to a discovery of a further aspect of ZEO.

  1. At M8 level the equations determining a given region of space-time surface are algebraic equations stating that either the real or imaginary part (in quaternionic sense) of octonionic polynomial obtains as algebraic continuations of a real polynomial with rational coefficients vanishes (one can consider also coefficients in given extension of rationals).

  2. These equations allow besides 4-D surfaces also exceptional solutions, which are 6-spheres and analogs of branes. They have the ball defined by the intersection of M4 time t= constant plane with CD as M4 projection and one has almost fiber space with fiber which is 3-sphere contracting to a point at light-like boundaries of CD. The value of t is given by a root t=rn of the real polynomial so that the number of these moments is finite and equal to the degree of the polynomial.

  3. These 6-spheres provide maximal cognitive representations. Their intersections with 4-D solutions are partonic 2-surfaces and by strong form of holography (SH) these partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets are expected to carry the data - cognitive representation - determining the space-time surface in question. From the point of view of consciousness theory, the intersections of 4-surfaces with t=rn branes - analogs of vertices at which 4-D surfaces meet - would define "very special moments in the life of self", kind of eureka moments, one might say.The life cycle of self would be characterize partially by this sequence.

See M8-H duality and consciousness

C. Applications

C.1 Nuclear physics

"Cold fusion" (transmutations of elements) is a phenomenon not accepted by the mainstream but the pioneers have continued their work and nowadays these people are not regarded as crackpots anymore.

"Cold fusion" is not the only problem of nuclear physics. For about 10 years ago Asplund et al discovered that solar abundances deduced from those outside Sun or at surface of Sun are lower than the abundance deduced from sound wave propagation in solar interior.

TGD based model for "cold fusion" generalizes to a model of nuclear reactions modifying dramatically the standard model.

  1. TGD based model of "cold fusion" relies on the notion of dark nucleus identified as dark proton sequence at magnetic flux tube. This kind of dark nuclei would be formed in Pollack effect in which charge separation leads to formation of negatively charged regions as protons go somewhere. Charge separation is generated by a feed of energy and IR light is the most effective manner to achieve Pollack effect.

  2. Dark nuclei have scaled down nuclear binding energy inversely proportional to the p-adic length scale characterizing the transversal thickness of the flux tube and distance between dark protons. The experimental findings about "cold fusion" suggest that the dark nucleons in these experiments have size scale of electron and binding energy in keV range. Also other scales are possible and in Pollack's experiments size scale would be considerably larger. Dark nuclei would also realized genetic code at fundamental level with 3-proton unit determining the code word. All basic bio-molecules have dark analogs of this kind.

  3. The transformation of dark nuclei to ordinary nuclei would liberate essentially all nuclear binding energy and explain heat production in dark fusion. It is quite possible that most of the energy leaks out along dark flux tubes. This process can take place at low temperatures and therefore also outside stellar cores. The generation of ordinary nuclei in this manner could solve why the abundances of Li, B, and Be are much larger than predicted by the standard nuclear physics. Same applies to nuclei heavier than Fe.

  4. Standard model for hot fusion occurring inside solar core assumes tunnelling as a basic step of fusion occurring in solar core. TGD suggests that the model for "cold fusion" generalize to all nuclear reactions. The formation of dark nuclei would the intermediate step instead of tunnelling and dark nuclear reactions would occur first and produce dark nuclei transforming to ordinary ones. The presence of dark nuclei in stellar interior could explain the findings of Asplund et al. Also the picture about pre-stellar evolution would change: elements could be produced already during this era.

See Solar Metallicity Problem from TGD Perspective

C.2 Cosmology

Cosmology is in crisis as the number of anomalies is steadily increasing. To mention only few of them.

  1. Cosmological constant is predicted to be huge but is non-vanishing and extremely small and gives rise to accelerated expansion.

  2. The mysteries of dark matter and dark energy are known for decades. The halo model of galactic dark mater is plagued by anomalies and the predicted dark particles have not been found.

  3. There is also the problem of two Hubble constants.

TGD suggests a solution of these problems.

  1. Twistor lift of TGD leads to the notion of length scale dependent cosmological constant and cosmic expansion would be a sequence of phase transition increasing the size scale of CD and reducing cosmological constant. Each step would involve accelerated period followed by slowing down of the expansion.

  2. TGD leads to a general model of cosmology in which primordial period would be cosmic string dominated - the M4 projection of space-time surfaces was 2-D string world sheet rather than 4-D piece of M4 defining Einsteinian space-time at QFT limit. In later evolution cosmic strings would thicken and GRT based cosmology would give a reasonable description in long length scales.

See the articles
C.3 Astrophysics

Cosmic strings thickened to flux tubes would appear in all length scales and one can say that they permeate through entire physics. Gravitation alone would not determine cosmology and astrophysics. Also Electric Universe hypothesis claims this and even that electromagnetism is all that is needed. This is unrealistic hypothesis.

See Comparing Electric Universe hypothesis and TGD

Cosmic strings thickened to flux tubes would represent deviation from GRT.

  1. The energy of cosmic strings and dark matter at them would explain dark matter and energy. Flat velocity spectrum for distant stars of galaxies is predicted without further assumptions. Quantum classical correspondence suggests that dark energy could be actually classical space-time correlate of dark matter identified as heff=nh0 phases at magnetic flux tubes resulting in the thickening of cosmic strings.

  2. Cosmic strings carrying monopole flux need no currents to maintain the magnetic field. This would explain the presence of magnetic fields even in cosmological scales. Also Earth's magnetic field would have two components corresponding to flux tubes carrying monopole flux and Maxwellian flux. This would also explain why magnetic field of Earth has not disappeared long time ago and also the finding that Mars has surprisingly strong magnetic field which is however visible only via auroras (only the monopole component is present).

    See Could Mars have intra-planetary life?

  3. One can understand the formation of galaxies and stars and even planets and smaller structures as a generation of tangles to long cosmic strings, which have topology of dipole magnetic field in the simplest situation. One ends up to a replacement of blackholes with volume filling flux tube tangles. White hole would be time reversal of blackhole. Even ordinary stars could be seen as blackhole like entities in this sense.

    See Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars and Solar Surprise

C.4 Quantum consciousness, quantum biology and neuroscience

Quantum consciousness, and quantum biology and neuroscience are applications of TGD. The macroscopic quantum coherence made possible by heff=nh0 hierarchy labelling dark matter as phases of ordinary matter, the notion of magnetic body, and zero energy ontology (ZEO) are key elements of TGD inspired vision. Magnetic body (MB) carrying dark matter serves as master and ordinary bio-matter as slave. The coherence of ordinary bio-matter is not quantum coherence but coherence induced by the quantum coherence of dark matter at MB.

  1. The basic problem of quantum biology based on standard quantum mechanics is that Planck constant is too small. TGD view obviously solves this problem. In particular, one ends up to a model for magneto-reception and circadian rhythm based on the notion of quantum compass defined by magnetic flux tubes with large value of heff.

    See TGD inspired model for magneto-reception and circadian rhythm

  2. Dark proton sequences - dark nuclei - allow a realization of genetic code and basic biomolecules. Codon corresponds to dark proton triplet. The numbers DNA,RNA,tRNA, and amino-acids are predicted correctly if they correspond to "shadow" of their dark counterparts. Also the number of codons coding for given amino-acid are predicted correctly.

    Second realization of genetic code would be in terms dark photon triplets whose frequencies define the analog of 3-chord. This allows communications utilizing genetic code. The geometries of icosahedron and tetrahedron lead to a model of genetic code predicting correctly the numbers of codons coding or given amino-acid. The model predicts large number of collections of 3-chords defining harmonies. Harmony would define emotional intelligence as holistic aspect of intelligence whereas codons would triplet 6-bits units.

    See An overall view about models of genetic code and bio-harmony

  3. Standard cosmology has a problem. Although various astrophysical objects participate in cosmic expansion, they do not seem to expand themselves. In TGD the expansion would take place even for astrophysical objects as jerks as cosmological constant is reduces and the thickness of flux tube increase. This leads to TGD variant of Expanding Earth Model in which Earth radius would have increased by a factor of 2 during relatively short period at the time of Cambrian Explosion. This would have caused the bursts of underground oceans and intra-terrestial multicellular life to the surface of Earth. There are indications that also Mars has oceans in its interior. Mars has also magnetic field and this could correspond to monopole flux tubes. Could this make possible multicellular life in the intra-Martial oceans?

    Could Mars have intra-planetary life?

  4. The basic prediction of TGD inspired biology is the existence of networks formed by magnetic flux tubes. It has been known for a long time that viruses can be multi-local in the sense that their parts are shared by several host cells. A possible interaction is that the parts of these multi-local viruses are connected by magnetic flux tubes. Bacterial colonies form tight structures analogous to multi-cellulars when metabolic resources are scarce. This could have led to multi-cellulars. These structures indeed resemble multicellular embryos.

    See Multilocal viruses

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.