Remark: I prefer to talk about blackhole like entities (BHEs): for TGD view about BHEs see this .
- The first question considered by the researches is what burned away the neutral fog around the BHE: it is known that re-ionization must have burned away the fog ending the "dark ages" during which the Universe was transparent but there were no sources of light, which we could see (cosmic redhsift). Dark ages ended when re-ionization took place by light burning away the fog - perhaps light coming from dwarf galaxies and high energy photons from quasars did this. Despite re-onization the light could propagate since the density of matter absorbing it was so low.
- There is also second deep problem: quasar - if indeed BHE - is too massive quite too early. This problem is met for all quasars - the age of the universe is measures using 1 billion years as a natural time unit for the observed quasars. If the galactic blackholes were former quasars, their masses should be larger than for quasars. The mass of Milky Way BHE is however of order 106 solar masses and much smaller than for quasars.
From the list of blackholes one gets an idea about the masses of galactic BHEs. Typically masses are considerably lower than quasar masses. There is however lenticular (between elliptic and spiral galaxy having disk but not spiral structure) galaxy NGC 1277 with galactic blackhole with mass about 1.7×1010M(Sun).
The smaller mass scale makes it is difficult to believe that galactic blackholes could be former quasars. One can also ask whether very old lenticular galaxies, which posses neither spiral structure but have galactic plane could be formed from quasars and whether the central object could be quasar.
ZEO allows to imagine two solutions to the problem of "too-young-to- be-so-heavy" problem.
- Quasars could be WHEs (see this) and they would feed matter to environment rather that eating it (there was not much to eat yet!). The dark energy and matter of a tangled of cosmic string would transform to ordinary matter eventually creating the visible galaxy as the tangle thickens to magnetic flux tube and loses its energy. The predecessors of quasars would be generated during inflationary period as tangles of cosmic strings of primordial cosmology started to thicken and Einsteinian space-time with 4-D M4 projection in M4×CP2 was created. Before this it was 2-D string world sheet. The fog, presumably hydrogen around the quasar formed from cosmic string energy, was formed from the energy of cosmic string.
The huge energy emission by quasars could accompany a reduction of length scale dependent cosmological constant leading to the emission of volume energy whose density is proportional to cosmological constant.
- One can also imagine that quasars were indeed BHEs which got their mass from the material produced by the decaying cosmic strings before stars were even formed. This would be less radical option than a) and require that BHEs of galactic nuclei started to form much later than quasars and have therefore much smaller masses. They are however present in all elliptic galaxies except dwarfs. Elliptic galaxies are rather old and could have perhaps formed as self-intersections of the flux tube tangle giving rise to the elliptic galaxy.
See the article TGD View about Quasars or the article Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.