- The simplest model for elliptic galaxy is as a closed string possibly reconnected as a loop from long string or as a tangle of a cosmic string having topology analogous to that of field lines of dipole magnetic field. Quasar would have preceded the formation of the tangle in which string would have thickened to flux tube and dark energy would have transformed to ordinary matter. Quasars would be time reversal of galactic blackhole like entity (GBHE).
- In the case of spiral galaxies the existence of vast polar structures (VPOS) in the plane orthogonal to the galactic plane of spiral galaxy (see this) strongly suggest that two cosmic strings are involved and that the spiral structure believed to correspond to a standing wave analogous to traffic jam is associated with dark matter of a long cosmic string. This model conforms with the fact that the stars of spiral galaxies are older than those of elliptic galaxies except inside the bulge.
The asymmetry between the two planes suggests that the spiral arms are formed when an elliptic galaxy identified as a tangle of a long string S|| formed via a quasar stage in the galactic plane has collided with a cosmic string S⊥ orthogonal to the galactic plane. These collisions are unavoidable for non-parallel strings and gravitational attraction causes the needed relative motion.
The differential rotation of portion of S|| around S⊥ would have deformed S|| to a spiral shape. S|| would have also generated the visible spiral arm pair in the transformation of dark energy to ordinary matter. Galactic bulge would correspond to the elliptic galaxy and galactic blackhole like entity (GBHE) would have formed from the matter in bulge: this conforms with the fact that elliptic galaxies have always galactic blackhole. The galactic bar could be analogous to the dipole of dipole magnetic field. In principle also the string orthogonal to the galactic plane could produce ordinary matter by thickening.
See the article A model for the formation of galaxies or the chapter Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.