Monday, October 21, 2019

What created the craters of Moon and other celestial bodies?

I received from Wes Johnson a link to to a Youtube video of Space News: Electric Universe titled
Our Lightning-Scarred Moon-The Evidence Grows . Very briefly: the basic message is that in case of Moon the basic theories for the formation of craters assuming impacts and volcanism as mechanisms are challenged by a large number of anomalies. It is also claimed that the theory assuming electric discharges - lightnings- as a cause is consistent with the data.

The video was highly interesting and I listened it through several times and the following is my attempt to summarize what I learned and how the the model based on electric lightnings can be formulated in TGD framework. Actually a generalization of a model formulated for what happens in "cold fusion" as dark nuclei transform to ordinary ones, is in question. The formation of craters could involve "cold fusion" and a kind of nuclear explosion.

Consider first what mainstream science says about the formation of craters. Impacts and volcanism would be the basic mechanisms. Most of craters would be however due to impacts.

  1. According to Wikipedia article, the cratering records of very old surfaces, such as Mercury, the Moon, and the southern highlands of Mars, record a period of intense early bombardment in the inner Solar System around 3.9 billion years ago. This is actually hypothesis known as late bombardment hypothesis.

  2. The Wikipedia article about craters in Moon states that most craters in Moon are impact craters. The number of craters in Moon and Mars is many orders of magnitude larger than that of impact craters in Earth. A natural explanation is that geological processes have destroyed the craters and very few from time before 500 million years are known (happens to be the time of Cambrian explosion about which I have talked a lot).

The video argues that the properties of craters of Moon are not consistent with either hypothesis.
  1. The sizes of craters can be enormous. Moon has a gigantic crater which has radius of 25000 km and is 390 km deep. It is one of the largest craters in solar system. Impact theory predicts that there should be material bursted from the mantle to the surface. The material is shocked and melded and there is no material from mantle as volcanic hypothesis would require (data are from Apollo mission).

  2. Why Moon should be so heavily cratered? The hypothesis that so called late heavy bombardment period 4.5-3.8 Gy ago lasting for 20 -200 million years gave rise to the impacts producing the craters. Asteroids have been assumed to have caused the impacts. The video mentions an article claiming that asteroids are not probable cause. The modified hypothesis is that remnants from the formation of planetary system caused the impacts.

  3. The craters are highly circular and can form sequences. There are also smaller craters at the rims of the craters bringing in mind fractal structure: vortices containing vortices containing....

  4. Also very long rilles very different from lava tubes at Earth are found and often start from the circular craters. Rilles have sequences of craters within them. The rilles can be very long, much longer than at Earth: the longest rille is 185 km long. Just the opposite should be the case, since the heat loss in very thin atmosphere should be faster than at Earth with insulating atmopshere so that the rilles should be shorter. There is no rubble at the bottom of rilles as at Earth. The rilles can be directed uphill rather than downhill as in hydrodynamic and lava flows. Rilles also disappear instantaneously. The rilles dwindle suddenly, which does not support the idea that lava flow caused their formation by "eating" the surface material. Rather this, suggest a sheet like structure entering the surface as giving rise to the rille. In the case of the highly circular craters a tube like structure meeting the surface orthogonally suggests itself.

  5. Also glass spheres and chondrules and minerals formed at very high temperatures are found in craters.
    Amusingly, crop circles (see this and this) involve also glass spheres and the model that propose for their formation decades ago would be the same as the model to be discussed for the formation of craters.

  6. The near side of Moon less cratered than far side. There are even hexagonal craters. At Mars there is hemisphere dichotomy with southern hemisphere containing more craters.

Consider the model based on electric discharges argued to be consistent with all data.
  1. Immanuel Velikovsky proposed that cosmic lightnings between planets and Moons created the craters of Moon Mainstream has labelled Velikovski as pseudoscientist. Carl Sagan has written a rather civilized critic of Velikovski's ideas concentrating on content rather than direct personal insults. On basis of his vision Velikovski predicted remanent magnetism in lunar rocks. Nowadays the magnetic field is very weak. This remanent magnetism has been observed.

  2. The crucial discovery by Brian J. Ford was that the electric discharges in lab applied also in industrial processes produce structures very similar to those observed in Moon. The ratio of sizes of largest to smallest craters is the same in Moon and in Mars. In particular, the craters produced in electric discharges are extremely circular. The document claims the electric discharge hypothesis is consistent with all findings about craters in Moon.

  3. R. Juergens studied the rilles appearing in many scales and starting typically from the craters. They were originally called cracks and proposed to be formed by a flow of water or lava across surfaces or beneath the ground. Juergens found however that high energy electric discharge is favoured as a model. Lava and water cannot explain the features of rilless already listed like craters along rilles whereas electric discharges reproduce these features.

If the arguments of the document are true, the proposal must be taken very seriously. It seems incredible that mainstream could neglect so serious anomalies but I have seen this to happen in particle physics for decades. So: suppose that one take the claims seriously. What could be TGD explanation?
  1. Monopole magnetic flux tubes carrying dark matter - perhaps dark nuclei as dark proton sequences is of course what comes first in mind. The flux tubes carrying the dark nuclei as dark cosmic rays could be associated with solar wind and are proposed to form a part of a bigger network allowing cosmic rays to propagate between galacies, stars and smaller astrophysical objects. This would be a cosmic analog of blood circulation (see this and this).

    Flux tubes have flux tubes within flux tubes that mathematical connection between incompressible liquid flow and magnetic field would allow to understanding the various structures as analogos of hydrodynamic trubueles having vortices within vortices fractal structure.

  2. In the collision with ground the dark nucleus formed by dark nucleon sequence nucleons would transform to ordinar nucleons and liberate practically all nuclear binding energy (see this and this) . The event would be like a nuclear explosion and this could explain why the effect is so large. This would be "cold fusion" event in macro scale. "Cold fusion" is known to involve formation of craters in micro scale and it would interesting to see whether the situation are scaled versions of each other.

    Also flux sheets are possible and the long rilles could correspond to these. Flux tubes inside flux tubes and inside flux sheets are possible and could give rise to fractal craters. This explanation would mean that also electric discharges in laboratory give rise to nuclear transmutations producing heavier elements as happens also in "cold fusion". This predictions could be tested in lab.

  3. From Wikipedia article one learns that ores often accompany craters and an interesting question is whether the craters formed in this manner give rise to ores.

  4. What one can say about these monopole flux tubes carrying the dark nuclei to Moon. Most naturally they would be dark flux tubes associated with solar wind bringing cosmic rays. Earth does not have this kind of craters and the number of impact craters is small. The simplest explanation is that geological and atmospheric processes have caused the erosion of these structures. This is proposed as an explanation for the very small number of impact craters in Earh (190), whereas their number in Moon, some planets and their moons is much larger due to the absence of atmosphere.

    It is also possible that reconnections of solar flux tubes with the flux tubes of dark magnetic field associated with the Moon (planet or its moon) is involved and leads to the event! Also the flux tubes of dark magnetic fields of planets and
    Moon (moons of planets) could take place.

One can test the hypothesis is consistent with the TGD inspired version of Expanding Earth model (see this).
  1. The model assumes that Earth had radius, which is half of the recent value before Cambrian explosion and same as the recent radius of Mars. Then came geologically fast expansion (jerk in sequence of fast expansions reducing the value of length scale dependent cosmological constant replacing smooth cosmic expansion in TGD Universe) and the life that had evolved in underground oceans below Earth's surface bursted to the surface and oceans were formed.

  2. The assumption that the situation at Earth was the same as in Mars before the expansion (see this), would explain the finding that the surface of Earth seems to have lost various details like rivers and lakes about 600 million years ago preceding Cambrian explosion about 512 million years ago.

    If the surface of Earth was like the surface of Mars now it would have been full of craters formed by electrical discharges due to the solar wind. This does not kill the model. The presence of erosion due to the emergence of atmosphere and biosphere would explain the absence of these craters at the surface of recent Earth. At the bottom of oceans formed in the expansions they would be automatically absent. Inside tectonic plates signatures of their presence might be found.

  3. The recent Earth is shielded by van Allen belts. If the van Allen belts consisted of dark flux tubes, they should have been present also before expansion and shielded Earth from cosmic rays and solar wind by guiding it to the Earth's interior. This would have brought ions and dark photons into the underground oceansand made possible the evolution of multicelluar life capable of photosynthesis.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

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