Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Cosmic strings and magnetic flux tubes as basic building bricks of TGD Universe

This posting consists of an answer to Wes Johnson's question inspired by the findings supporting the existence of Martian life. I will explain first the relationship between cosmic strings and flux tubes and the general role of cosmic strings and flux tubes in cosmology, astrophysics, and physics in TGD Universe. I will add this post also to my blog.

A. What cosmic strigs and magnetic flux tubes are?

A.1. Cosmic strings and monopole flux tubes

There are two kinds of cosmic string and flux tubes. Those carrying monopole flux and those carrying non-monopole flux. The first are not possible in Maxwellian world whereas the latter are.

  1. Monopole flux tubes originate from cosmic string extremals, which are space-time surfaces which have 2-D minimal surface as projection to 4-D MInkowski space M^4 and 2-D minimal surface projection to CP_2. For all practical purposes above CP_2 scale which is about 10^4 Planck lengths these 4-D surfaces look like 2-D string world sheets.

    1. They are monopole flux tubes since the magnetic flux over cross section of tube, which is closed 2-surface rather than disk as for ordinary flux tubes, is non-vanishing and quantized. Essentially the homology charge of the CP_2 projection. The projection is sphere S^2 in the simplest case.

    2. Monopole flux tubes are necessarily closed since magnetic field lines parallel to them must be closed. In particular, one can have flux tubes which look somewhat like rectangles with very short and very long side. These give rise to U-shaped tentacles crucial in biology.

      The long sides of U-shaped tentacles can also form DNA-like helical structure. This kind of dark structure would be behind ordinary DNA: dark DNA would carry dark proton sequence neutralizing the negative charges of nucleotides and making DNA stable. Codon would correspond to 3-proton unit: codon would correspond to 3-proton unit and vertebrate DNA code is predicted correctly.

    3. Monopole flux tubes can be also 2-sheeted. Flux tube can connected wormhole throats at sheet A and continue along wormhole contact with Euclidian signature of induced metric and representable as small deformation of CP_2 type extremal - essentially elementary particle- to parallel space-time sheet B. Flux would return back along B and return back to A along the first wormholecontant.

  2. TGD predicts also non-monopole flux tubes with closed cross section for which flux over cross section vanishes. Also they can exists as a version for which one say disk instead of sphere and glues it to background space-time sheet. Now one however requires current at the boundary of the disk. The thckenings of these would represent flux tubes of *ordinary* magnetic field.

B. (Monopole) cosmic strings, cosmology, and cosmological constant
  1. Cosmic strings dominate in very early cosmology during which space-time with 4-D M^4 projection had not emerged.

  2. During TGD counterpart of inflationary phase their 2-D M^4 projection starts to thicken and becomes 4-D: ordinary Einsteinian space-time emerges.

  3. Their dark energy consisting of Kahler magnetic energy and volume energy decreases and transforms to ordinary matter: this corresponds to the decay of inflaton field. The thickening of flux tubes slows down by the increase of the volume energy competing with the decrease of magnetic energy and one obtains radiation dominated phase.

  4. These first accelerating and then slowing down periods of thickening repeat being associated with the decrease of length scale dependent cosmological constant by a factor, which is negative power of 2. The rapid expansion of Earth's radius by factor 2 in Cambrian explosion is example of this kind of rapid jerk. This jerkwise cosmic expansion replaces smooth expansion (see this).

    Quite generally, highly developed multicellulars would evolve in underground oceans of planets acting as wombs. Various ions from stellar wind and dark photons would arrive along dark flux tubes to the interior. Earth could be predecessor in the sense that the life from underground ocean would have emerged to the surface during Cambrian explosion as the radius of Earth increase by factor 2.

  5. This could solve Fermi paradox. Life would be everywhere but inside the planets in planetary wombs. We might be pioneers. An alternative solution is that we are already in telepathic contact with higher life forms at dark magnetic bodies but do not realize it. We ourselves could have magnetic bodies with Earth sized and perhaps even galaxy sized layers.

    This is not the only possible TGD inspired solution of Fermi paradox. Our own magnetic body would have layers with size of Earth scale and perhaps even galactic scale. We could be in continual contact with the magnetic bodies of members of other civilizations without knowing it - say during dream states. We could have even neural machinery activating these flux tube contacts. DMT is the only psychelic produced by body itself, and is assigned with pineal gland, which Descartes identified as the seat seat of soul. In zero energy ontology light velocity would not be a problem for communications with distant civlization since signals could propagate in both directions and time reflection would make communications forth and back in time possible (see this).

  6. This gives a solution to the problem of cosmic constant plaguing competing theories and which gave the final death blow to superstring models. The cosmological constant is indeed very large in short scales but in recent cosmic scale extremely small. Cosmological constant in given scale involves two length scales: horizon sizes and the typical thickness of flux tube. For recent cosmology flux tube thickness has the size scale of large neutron and Compton length of neutrino so that a connection with biology and neutrino physics emerges.

  7. Monopole flux tubes and probably also their non-monopole variants possibly defining the flux tubes along which gravitational interactions propagate (monopole or non-monopole: this is not yet clear) form a fractal network and appear in all scales

C. (Monopole) osmic strings, flux tubes and physics and biology
  1. All branches of physics starting from the formation of galaxies, stars, and planets down to biology, molecular physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, hadron physics,... involve monopole flux tubes as basic entities. Ironically the intuition of string model builders was right but they were too hasty to ask how to obtain 4-D space-time and lost 35 years. The best manner to be really slow is to be very hasty.

  2. Monopole flux which is direct reflection of surface property of space-time means a very essential deviation from Maxwell's theory. These magnetic fields require no current as source so that that they can exists in very early cosmology where there are no coherent currents in long scales.

  3. This explains the observed magnetic fields in cosmic scales.

  4. Also the maintenance problem of magnetic field of Earth finds solution. Monopole part requires no current which requires energy feed to avoid dissipation. The ordinary part decays but the change of the orientations of the monopole part - magnetic body of Earth- generates currents regenerating the ordinary part. One can visualize Earth's magnetic body as a magnetic animal turning its body to regenerate ordinary magnetic field! van Allen belts would be associated with monopole part of MB and also auroras (see this).

  5. Also the recently discovered magnetic field of Mars with same strength as Eart's magnetic field would consists of monopole flux tubes. This also explains Martian auroras (see this).

  6. The reconnections of monopole flux tubes give rise to topological dynamics associated with the formation of auroras. When otherwise unseen monopole flux tubes carrying dark matter as heff=n×h0 phases reconnect part of dark matter transforms to ordinary matter and also currents (Birkeland currents) giving rise to ordinary magnetic fields are generated. This topological dynamics is behind biochemistry and biocatalysis. Molecules find each other by U-shaped flux tube tentacles which reconnected to pair of flux tubes. Then the pair shortens by reducing heff. This liberates energy making possible for reactants to jump over the potential wall making the reaction very slow (see this) .

D. Further questions about flux tubes

Wes Johson asked also following questions related to magnetic flux tubes.

  • Monopole flux tubes require no current but do they EMF a current or then what system does drive the energy of these tubes so universal?

  • And, why would a beginning of a Universe need to be chaotic, (no regular coherent magnetic fields yet in the early phase?)

  • I think the Second Law of Thermodynamics tells us it must begin in maximal order.

  • And... are your dark tubes called that because they what, can't be observed? But they drive the patterns we do observe so why are they dark? Out of our phase?

My answers.
  1. They have magnetic energy and volume energy, which they cannot dissipate. This is prevented by monopole character of flux. It is conserved. This makes them stable and they replace the unstable wormoles in ER-EPR. Actually the TGD counterpart of ER-EPR emerged much before ER-EPR but for some reason the colleagues had not noticed TGD proposal.

    The deformations of monopole flux tubes generate to its magnetic field rotational part which has current as source. This is expected to dissipate and lead to dissipation of corresponding part of magnetic field. Remember that we are considering space-time surfaces and fields are completely geometrized and determined by geometry from CP_2.

  2. If the beginning was cosmic string dominated, it need not be chaotic.

    There are excellent reasons to believe that TGD Universe at the level of zero energy states corresponds to a completely integrable system, which is extremely highly ordered allowing infinite number of conservation laws. If the cosmic strings dominated in the beginning, the low entropy initial state looks plausible.

    Here one must however remember that there is entropy related to the purely geometric degrees of freedom and the fermionic degrees of freedom inside them.

  3. Second law must be generalized in TGD framework since the arrow of time is not fixed. Small state function reductions a counterparts of weak measurements generate entanglement and therefore entanglement entropy. In TGD Universe however both arrows of time are possible: the arrow actually changes in ordinary state function reduction.

    In biology the change of arrow would occur routinely. Basic biomolecular reactions involve ordinary state function reductions changing the arrow of time. Magnetic flux tubes again. Also macroscopic quantum jumps changing the arrow of time are possible and the very strange findings about volcanic eruptions and earthquakes can be understood if they correspond to quantum jumps chabging the arrow of time. Monopole flux tubes are in a key role also here.

  4. Darkness means in TGD following. The working hypothesis is that only particles with same value of h_eff=n*h_0 can appear in the same vertex. In this sense particles with different value of h_eff would be relatively dark. The change of h_eff for single particle states is however possible. It would preserve energy.

    In case of photons transition would change frequency by conservation of E= heff×f. For instance, dark ELF photons could produce ordinary photons identified as biophotons and having energies in visible and UV. This would make possible for long range degrees of freedom to control short length scales (say biomolecular transitions by magnetic body).

    Dark flux tubes are observable both indirectly and directly. The measure magnetic fields in many-sheeted space-time are sums of ordinary and dark contributions since test particle as extremely small CP2 size object touches all space-time sheets extremely near to each other and experience the sum of fields from various sheets defining the gauge field at QFT limit of TGD replaced many-sheeted space-time with piece of M4, which becomes slightly curved.

    For instance, the reconnections of cosmic strings induce transformation of dark matter at them to ordinary matter, which is observed in auroras also in Mars which was though to have no appreciable magnetic field but has according to the latest measurements - as strong as Earth's field at same distance!

    Quite generally, dark matter makes itself observable via its transformation to ordinary matter and vice versa. One must accept either the violation of basic conservation laws or existence of dark matter in TGD sense. The situation is same as for neutrinos. Biophotons is one example. Emdrive effect discovered in NASA is second example. Also in atomic physics there is effect in which valence electrons mysteriously disappear. The list is already now long.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

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