Wednesday, November 28, 2007

The work of Kanarev and Mizuno about cold fusion in electrolysis

The article of Kanarev and Mizuno [1] reports findings supporting the occurrence of cold fusion in NaOH and KOH hydrolysis. The situation is different from standard cold fusion where heavy water D2O is used instead of H2O.

  1. One can understand the cold fusion reactions reported by Mizuno as nuclear reactions in which part of what I call dark proton string having negatively charged color bonds (essentially a zoomed up variant of ordinary nucleus with large Planck constant) suffers a phase transition to ordinary matter and experiences ordinary strong interactions with the nuclei at the cathode. In the simplest model the final state would contain only ordinary nuclear matter.

  2. Negatively charged color bonds could correspond to pairs of quark and antiquark or to pairs of color octet electron and antineutrino having mass of order 1 MeV. Also quantum superpositions of quark and lepton pairs can be considered. Note that TGD predicts that leptons can have colored excitations and production of neutral leptopions formed from them explains the anomalous production of electron-positron pairs associated with heavy ion collisions near Coulomb wall.

  3. The so called H1.5O anomaly of [2] can be understood if 1/4 of protons of water forms dark lithium nuclei or heavier nuclei formed as sequences of these just as ordinary nuclei are constructed as sequences of 4He and lighter nuclei in nuclear string model. The results force to consider the possibility that nuclear isotopes unstable as ordinary matter can be stable dark matter. In the formation of these sequence the negative electronic charge of hydrogen atoms goes naturally to the color bonds. The basic interaction would generate charge quark pair (or a pair of color octet electron and antineutrino or a quantum superposition of quark and lepton pair) plus color octet neutrino. By lepton number conservation each electron pair would give rise to a color singlet particle formed by two color octet neutrinos and defining the analog of leptobaryon. Di-neutrino would leave the system unless unless it has large enough mass. Neutrino mass scale .1 eV gives for the Compton time scale the estimate .1 attoseconds which would suggest that di-neutrinos do not leak out. Recall that attosecond is the time scale in which H1.5O behavior prevails.

  4. The data of Mizuno requires that the protonic strings have net charge of three units and by em stability have neutral color bonds at ends and negatively charged bonds in between. Dark variants of Li isotopes would be in question. The so called lithium problem of cosmology (the observed abundance of lithium is by a factor 2.5 lower than predicted by standard cosmology [3]) can be resolved if lithium nuclei transform partially to dark lithium nuclei.

  5. Biologically important ions K+, Cl-, Ca++ appear in cathode in plasma electrolysis and would be produced in cold nuclear reactions of dark Li nuclei of water and Na+. This suggests that cold nuclear reactions occur also in living cell and produce metabolic energy. There exists evidence for nuclear transmutations in living matter [4]. In particular, Kervran claims that it is very difficult to understand where the Ca in egg shells comes from. Cell membrane would provide the extremely strong electric field perhaps creating the plasma needed for cold nuclear reactions somewhat like in plasma electrolysis.

  6. The model is consistent with the model for cold fusion of deuterium nuclei [5]. In this case nuclear reaction would however occur on the "dark side". The absence of He from reaction products can be understood if the D nuclei in Pd target are transformed by weak interactions between D and Pd nuclei to their neutral counterparts analogous to di-neutrons. Neutral color bond could transform to negatively charged one by the exchange of W+ boson of a scaled version of weak interactions with the range of interaction given by atomic length scale. Also exchange of charge ρ meson of scaled down variant of QCD could affect the same thing. This interaction might be at work also for ordinary nuclei in condensed matter and ordinary nuclei could contain protons and negatively charged color bonds neutrons. The difference in mass would be very small since the quarks have mass of order MeV.

The model leads also to a new understanding of ordinary [6] and plasma electrolysis of water [7], and allows to identify hydrogen bond as dark OH bond.

  1. The model for plasma hydrolysis relies on the observation of Kanarev that the energy of OH bonds in water is reduce from about 8 eV to a value around .5 eV which corresponds to the fundamental metabolic energy quantum resulting in dropping of proton from atomic k=137 space-time sheet and also to a typical energy of hydrogen bond. This suggests the possibility that hydrogen bond is actually a dark OH bond. From 1/hbar-proportionality of perturbative contribution of Coulomb energy for bond one obtains that dark bond energy scales as 1/hbar so that dark OH bond could be in question. In Kanarev's plasma electrolysis the temperature is between .5-1 eV and thermal radiation could induce producing 2H2+O2 by the splitting of the dark OH bonds. One could have hbar=24×hbar0. Also in the ordinary electrolysis the OH bond energy is reduced by a factor of order 2 which suggest that in this case one has hbar=2×hbar0.

  2. The transformation of OH bonds to their dark counterparts requires energy and this energy would come from dark nuclear reactions. The liberated (dark) photons could kick protons from (dark) atomic space-time sheets to smaller space-time sheets and remote metabolism would provide the energy for the transformation of OH bond. The existence of dark hydrogen bonds with energies differing by integer scaling is predicted and powers of 2 are favored. It is known that at least two hydrogen bonds for which energies differ by factor 2 exist in ice [8].

  3. In plasma electrolysis the increase of the input voltage implies a mysterious reduction of the electron current with the simultaneous increase of the size of the plasma region near the cathode. The electronic charge must go somewhere and the natural place are negative color bonds connecting dark protons to dark lithium isotopes. The energy liberated in cold nuclear reactions would create plasma by ionizing hydrogen atoms which in turn would generate more dark protons fused to dark lithium isotopes and increase the rate of energy production by dark nuclear reactions. This means a positive feedback loop analogous to that occurring in ordinary nuclear reactions.

The model explains also the burning of salt water discovered by Kanzius [9] as a special case of plasma electrolysis since the mechanism does not necessitate the presence of either anode, cathode, or electron current.

  1. The temperature of the flame is estimated to be 1500 C. The temperature in water could be considerably higher and 1500 C defines a very conservative estimate. Hydrolysis would be preceded by the transformation of HO bonds to hydrogen bonds and dark nuclear reactions would provide the energy. Again positive feedback loop should be created. Dark radio wave photons would transform to microwave photons and together with nuclear energy production would keep the water at the temperature corresponding to the energy of.017 eV (for conservative estimate T=.17 eV in water) so that dark OH bonds would break down thermally.

  2. For T=1500 C the energy of dark OH bond (hydrogen bond) would be very low, around .04 eV for hbar=180×hbar0 and nominal value 8 eV OH bond energy (this is not far from the energy assignable to the membrane resting potential) from the condition that dark radio wave frequency 13.65 MHz corresponds to the microwave frequency needed to heat water by the rotational excitation of water molecules.

  3. Visible light would result as dark protons drop from k=165 space-time sheet to any larger space-time sheet or from k=164 to k=165 space-time sheet (2 eV radiation). 2 eV photons would explain the yellow color in the flame (not red as I have claimed earlier). The red light present in Kanarev's experiment can be also understood since there is entire series E(n)= E× (1-2-n) of energies corresponding to transitions to space-time sheets with increasing p-adic length scale. For k=165 n<6 corresponds to red or infrared light and n>5 to yellow light.

  4. There is no detectable or perceivable effect on hand by the radio wave radiation. The explanation would be that dark hydrogen bonds in cellular water correspond to a different values of Planck constant. One should of course check whether the effect is really absent.

For more details see the chapter Nuclear String Hypothesis.

References

[1] Cold fusion by plasma electrolysis of water, Ph. M. Kanarev and T. Mizuno (2002),
http://www.guns.connect.fi/innoplaza/energy/story/Kanarev/coldfusion/.

[2] M. Chaplin (2005), Water Structure and Behavior,
http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/index.html.
For 41 anomalies see http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/anmlies.html.
For the icosahedral clustering see http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/clusters.html.
J. K. Borchardt(2003), The chemical formula H2O - a misnomer, The Alchemist 8 Aug (2003).
R. A. Cowley (2004), Neutron-scattering experiments and quantum entanglement, Physica B 350 (2004) 243-245.
R. Moreh, R. C. Block, Y. Danon, and M. Neumann (2005), Search for anomalous scattering of keV neutrons from H2O-D2O mixtures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185301.

[3] C. Charbonnel and F. Primas (2005), The lithium content of the Galactic Halo stars.
See also Lithium.

[4]C. L. Kervran (1972), Biological transmutations, and their applications in chemistry, physics, biology, ecology, medicine, nutrition, agriculture, geology, Swan House Publishing Co.
P. Tompkins and C. Bird (1973), The secret life of plants, Harper and Row, New York.

[5] Cold fusion is back at the American Chemical Society.
See also Cold fusion - hot news again .

[6] Electrolysis of water.

[7] P. Kanarev (2002), Water is New Source of Energy, Krasnodar.

[8] J-C. Li and D.K. Ross (1993), Evidence of Two Kinds of Hydrogen Bonds in Ices. J-C. Li and D.K. Ross, Nature, 365, 327-329.

[9] Burning salt water.

5 Comments:

At 7:18 PM, Blogger Tara said...

This is very interesting, cold fusion is a fascinating topic. Are you aware of Quantum Ring Theory: Foundations for Cold Fusion? It discusses a whole new perspective on cold fusion.

 
At 1:12 AM, Blogger Matti Pitkanen said...

This is new to me. Thank you for link.

 
At 2:59 PM, Blogger W.GUGLINSKI said...

A discussion on the theoretical viability in cold fusion can be seen in the link of the Chemistry Forum:
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=17140.0
where the journalist Steve Krivit tries to convince the skeptic nuclear chemist Andre Mitch.


Steve Krivit says:
...................................
Hi Mitch,
There is a theory (published in a reputable peer-reviewed journal) by Widom and Larsen, that claims to be able to explain most of the "cold fusion" phenomena without requiring one to invoke magic spells. Take a look at www.newenergytimes.com/wltheory.

Let me know what you think.
Best regards,
Steve Krivit
Editor, New Energy Times
...................................
.
.
.
And Mitch replies, debunking Krivit's argument:
...................................
sbkrivit: The general gist I get from the above link is that some unbeknown phenomena is creating thermal neutrons, and it is those thermal neutrons that are leading to observed heat increases.

I doubt this is happening, but I can knock out the claim that this is from electron capture on deuterium(2H) or that this is from, protons(1H).

I made a nice little calculator for these types of things. Link: http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?page=scripts#Nuclear%20Reactions%20Calculator

Reactions:

Electron Capture on Hydrogen
1H + 1e- ---> 1n
Q = -0.78153017800003 MeV
Electron Capture on Deuterium
2H + 1e- ---> 1n + 1n
Q = -3.0059569539999 MeV

A negative Q-value means that this will not happen spontaneously. This makes sense, since neutrons are heavier (contain more mass) than protons. The question then is, where will this additional mass come from? From the references cited in your post, I see no explanation accounting for the excess mass of the neutron. In the end, the mass-energy or the products need to equal the mass-energy of the reactants; No one can escape the conservation of mass-energy.
...................................
.
.
.
Ahead in that link I posted a theoretical solution for the question arisen by Mitch.

He did not reply to my argument

 
At 3:18 PM, Blogger W.GUGLINSKI said...

Other interesting discussion can be seen in the link:
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=20895.0

where the chemists Mitch, Borek, and Enahs, try to refute the existence of two different structures of the isotope 8O18, predicted in Quantum Ring Theory.

The existence of the two different structures cannot be explained from the current Nuclear Physics, in spite of their existence is confirmed by the Raghavan's nuclear data.


The arguments of Mitch, Borek, and Enahs, are debunked by me along the discussion.

 
At 9:07 PM, Blogger Matti Pitkanen said...

Thank you for an informative comment.

I believe that cold fusion is not explainable using standard nuclear physics. The Q-value argument for mechanism producing neutrons from protons and electrons looks bad enough to kill the hypothesis.

In TGD framework one has however new nuclear physics: even ordinary nuclear physics differs from standard one. The new conceptual element is the color bond which can have charge 0,1,-1, since it has quark and antiquark at its ends.

Usually the charge is zero but for exotic states like tetraneutron (alpha particle with two negatively charged color bonds) it is negative. Proton plus negatively charged color bond is effectively neutron as far as strong and em forces are considered. Hence neutron model and TGD inspired model are expected to make very similar predictions for transmutation rates although detailed selection rules probably vary since incoming nuclei are effectively Li, C, F,... isotopes in the simplest model inspired by Kanarev's findings.

If I were a dictator I would suggest to look very carefully nuclear physics to see whether the neutrons in some isotopes are really neutrons. For instance, one might look whether neutron halos actually consist of protons connected by negatively charged color bonds to the main nucleus. This would allow to maximize binding energy.

Just yesterday evening I heard a radio programs relating to the search of ores. There are situations in which the ore is formed in a totally mysterious manner in an environment containing rottening organic stuff. Could it be that nuclear transmutations are at work? Could one make nuclear transmutations a new technology producing metals?

 

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