### DNA as a topological quantum computer: II

I have been trying to develop general ideas about topological computation in terms of braidings. There are many kinds of braidings. Number theoretic braids are defined by the orbits of minima of vacuum expectation of Higgs at lightlike partonic 3-surfaces (and also at space-like 3-surfaces). There are braidings defined by Kähler gauge potential (possibly equivalent with number theoretic ones) and by Kähler magnetic field. Magnetic flux tubes and partonic 2-surfaces interpreted as strands of define braidings whose strands are not infinitely thin. A very concrete and very complex time-like braiding is defined by the motions of people at the surface of globe: perhaps this sometimes purposeless-looking fuss has a deeper purpose: maybe those at the higher levels of dark matter hierarchy are using us to carry out complex topological quantum computations;-)!

** 1. General vision about quantum computation**

The hierarchy of Planck constants would give excellent hopes of quantum computation in TGD Universe. The general vision about quantum computation (tqc would result as special case) would look like follows.

- Time-like entanglement between positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states would define the analogs of qc-programs. Space-like quantum entanglement between ends of strands whose motion defines time-like braids would provide a representation of q-information.
- Both time- and space-like quantum entanglement would correspond to Connes tensor product expressing the finiteness of the measurement resolution between the states defined at ends of space-like braids whose orbits define time like braiding. The characterization of the measurement resolution would thus define both possible q-data and tq-programs as representations for "laws of physics".
- I have discussed here a possible vision of how DNA could act as topological quantum computer. The braiding between DNA strands with each nucleotide defining one strand transversal to DNA realized in terms of magnetic flux tubes is my bet for the representation of space-like braiding in living matter. The conjectured hierarchy of genomes giving rise to quantum coherent gene expressions in various scales would correspond to computational hierarchy.

**2. About the relation between space-like and time-like number theoretic braidings**

The relationship between space- and time-like braidings is interesting and there might be some connections also to 4-D topological gauge theories suggested by geometric Langlands program discussed in the previous posting.

- The braidings along light-like surfaces modify space-like braiding if the moving ends of the space-like braids at partonic 3-surfaces define time-like braids. From tqc point of view the interpretation would be that tqc program is written to memory represented as the modification of space-like braiding in 1-1 correspondence with the time-like braiding.
- The orbits of space-like braids define codimension two sub-manifolds of 4-D space-time surface and can become knotted. Presumably time-like braiding gives rise to a non-trivial "2-braid". Could it be that also "2-braiding" based on this knotting be of importance? Do 2-connections of n-category theorists emerge somehow as auxiliary tools? Could 2-knotting bring additional structure into the topological QFT defined by 1-braidings and Chern-Simons action?
- The strands of dynamically evolving braids could in principle go through each other so that time evolution can transform braid to a new one also in this manner. This is especially clear from standard representation of knots by their planar projections. The points where intersection occurs correspond to self-intersection points of 2-surface as a sub-manifold of space-time surface. Topological QFT:s are also used to classify intersection numbers of 2-dimensional surfaces understood as homological equivalence classes. Now these intersection point would be associated with "braid cobordism".

** 3. Quantum computation as quantum superposition of classical computations?**

It is often said that quantum computation is quantum super-position of classical computations. In standard path integral picture this does not make sense since between initial and final states represented by classical fields one has quantum superposition over * all* classical field configurations representing classical computations in very abstract sense. The metaphor is as good as the perturbation theory around the minimum of the classical action is as an approximation.

In TGD framework the classical space-time surface is a preferred extremal of Kähler action so that apart from effects caused by the failure of complete determism, the metaphor makes sense precisely. Besides this there is of course the computation associated with the spin like degrees of freedom in which one has entanglement and which one cannot describe in this manner.

For tqc a particular classical computation would reduce to the time evolution of braids and would be coded by 2-knot. Classical computation would be coded to the manipulation of the braid. Note that the branching of strands of generalized number theoretical braids has interpretation as classical communication.

** 4. The identification of topological quantum states**

Quantum states of tqc should correspond to topologically robust degrees of freedom separating neatly from non-topological ones.

- The generalization of the imbedding space inspired by the hierarchy of Planck constants suggests an identification of this kind of states as elements of the group algebra of discrete subgroup of SO(3) associated with the group defining covering of M
^{4}or CP_{2}or both in large hbar sector. One would have wave functions in the discrete space defined by the homotopy group of the covering transforming according to the representations of the group. This is by definition something robust and separated from non-topological degrees of freedom (standard model quantum numbers). There would be also a direct connection with anyons. - An especially interesting group is dodecahedral group corresponding to the minimal quantum phase q=exp(2π/5) (Golden Mean) allowing a universal topological quantum computation: this group corresponds to Dynkin diagram for E
_{8}by the ALE correspondence.

** 5. Some questions**

A conjecture inspired by the inclusions of HFFs is that these states can be also regarded as representations of various gauge groups which TGD dynamics is conjectured to be able to mimic so that one might have connection with non-Abelian Chern-Simons theories where topological S-matrix is constructed in terms of path integral over connections: these connections would be only an auxiliary tool in TGD framework.

- Do these additional degrees of freedom give only rise to topological variants of gauge- and conformal field theories? Note that if the earlier conjecture that entire dynamics of these theories could be mimicked, it would be best to perform tqc at quantum criticality where either M
^{4}or CP_{2}dynamical degrees of freedom or both disappear. - Could it be advantageous to perform tqc near quantum criticality? For instance, could one construct magnetic braidings in the visible sector near q-criticality using existing technology and then induce phase transition changing Planck constant by varying some parameter, say temperature.

For details see the new chapter DNA as Topological Quantum Computer of "Genes and Memes".

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