### Still more detailed view about the construction of M-matrix elements

After three decades there are excellent hopes of building an explicit recipe for constructing M-matrix elements but the devil is in the details.

**1. Elimination of infinities and coupling constant evolution**

*resp.*renormalization of coupling constants. The corrections due to the increase of measurement resolution in time comes as very specific corrections to positive and negative energy states involving gluing of smaller causal diamonds to the upper and lower boundaries of causal diamonds along any radial light-like ray. The radiative corresponds to the interactions correspond to the addition of smaller causal diamonds in the interior of the larger causal diamond. Scales for the corrections come as scalings in powers of 2 rather than as continuous scaling of measurement resolution.

** 2. Conformal symmetries**

^{8}and H=M

^{4}×CP

_{2}descriptions (number theoretic compactifcation) relate? Concerning the understanding of these issues, the earlier construction of physical states poses strong constraints.

- The state construction utilizes both super-canonical and super Kac-Moody algebras. Super-canonical algebra has negative conformal weights and creates tachyonic ground states from which Super Kac-Moody algebra generates states with non-negative conformal weight determining the mass squared value of the state. The commutator of these two algebras annihilates the physical states. This requires that both super conformal algebras must allow continuation to hyper-octonionic algebras, which are independent.
- The light-like radial coordinate at dM
^{4}_{±}can be continued to a hyper-complex coordinate in M^{2}_{±}defined the preferred commutative plane of non-physical polarizations, and also to a hyper-quaternionic coordinate in M^{4}_{±}. Hence it would seem that super-canonical algebra can be continued to an algebra in M^{2}_{±}or perhaps in the entire M^{4}_{±}. This would allow to continue also the operators G, L and other super-canonical operators to operators in hyper-quaternionic M^{4}_{±}needed in stringy perturbation theory. - Also the super KM algebra associated with the light-like 3-surfaces should be continuable to hyper-quaternionic M
^{4}_{±}. Here HO-H duality comes in rescue. It requires that the preferred hyper-complex plane M^{2}is contained in the tangent plane of the space-time sheet at each point, in particular at light-like 3-surfaces. We already know that this allows to assign a unique space-time surface to a given collection of light-like 3-surfaces as hyper-quaternionic 4-surface of HO hypothesized to correspond to (an obviously preferred) extremal of Kähler action. An equally important implication is that the light-like coordinate of X^{3}can be continued to hyper-complex coordinate M^{2}coordinate and thus also to hyperquaternionic M^{4}coordinate. - The four-momentum appears in super generators G
_{n}and L_{n}. It seems that the formal Fourier transform of four-momentum components to gradient operators to M^{4}_{±}is needed and defines these operators as particular elements of the CH Clifford algebra elements extended to fields in imbedding space.

** 3. What about stringy perturbation theory?**

^{4}coordinates of the end points of the propagator line connecting two partonic 2-surfaces should appear as fermionic (bosonic) propagator in stringy perturbation theory. Virasoro conditions imply that only G

_{0}and L

_{0}appear as propagators. Momentum eigenstates are not strictly speaking possible since since discretization is present due to the finite measurement resolution. One can however represent these states using Fourier transform as a superposition of momentum eigenstates so that standard formalism can be applied. Symplectic QFT gives an additional multiplicative contribution to n-point functions and there would be also braiding S-matrices involved with the propagator lines in the case that partonic 2-surface carriers more than 1 point. This leaves still modular degrees of freedom of the partonic 2-surfaces describable in terms of elementary particle vacuum functionals and the proper treatment of these degrees of freedom remains a challenge.

** 4. What about non-hermiticity of the CH super-generators carrying fermion number?**

^{4}and H gamma matrices carry fermion number. This has been a long-standing interpretational problem in quantum TGD and I have been even ready to give up the interpretation of four-momentum operator appearing in G

_{n}and L

_{n}as actual four-momenta. The manner to get rid of this problem would be the assumption of Majorana property but this would force to give up the interpretation of different imbedding space chiralities in terms of conserved lepton and quark numbers and would also lead to super-string theory with critical dimension 10 or 11. A further problem is how to obtain amplitudes which respect fermion number conservation using string perturbation theory if 1/G=G

_{0}

^{f}/L

_{0}carries fermion number. The recent picture does not leave many choices so that I was forced to face the truth and see how everything falls down to this single nasty detail! It became as a total surprise that gamma matrices carrying fermion number do not cause any difficulties in zero energy ontology and make sense even in the ordinary Feynman diagrammatics.

- Non-hermiticity of G means that the center of mass terms CH gamma matrices must be distinguished from their Hermitian conjugates. In particular, one has g
_{0}¹ g_{0}^{f}. One can interpret the fermion number carrying M^{4}gamma matrices of the complexified quaternion space appearing naturally in number theoretical framework. - One might think that M
^{4}×CP_{2}gamma matrices carrying fermion number is a catastrophe but this is not the case in a massless theory. Massless momentum eigen states can be created by the operator p^{k}g_{k}^{f}from a vacuum annihilated by gamma matrices and satisfying massless Dirac equation. For instance, the conserved fermion number defined by the integral of \overline{Y}g^{0}Y over 3-space gives just its standard value. A further experimentation shows that Feynman diagrams with non-hermitian gamma matrices give just the standard results since fermionic propagator and boson-emission vertices give compensating fermion numbers. - If the theory would contain massive fermions or a coupling to a scalar Higgs, a catastrophe would result. Hence ordinary Higgs mechanism is not possible in this framework. Of course, also the quantization of fermions is totally different. In TGD fermion mass is not a scalar in H. Part of it is given by CP
_{2}Dirac operator, part by p-adic thermodynamics for L_{0}, and part by Higgs field which behaves like vector field in CP_{2}degrees of freedom, so that the catastrophe is avoided. - In zero energy ontology zero energy states are characterized by M-matrix elements constructed by applying the combination of stringy and symplectic Feynman rules and fermionic propagator is replaced with its super-conformal generalization reducing to an ordinary fermionic propagator for massless states. The norm of a single fermion state is given by a propagator connecting positive energy state and its conjugate with the propagator G
_{0}/L_{0}and the standard value of the norm is obtained by using Dirac equation and the fact that Dirac operator appears also in G_{0}. - The hermiticity of super-generators G would require Majorana property and one would end up with superstring theory with critical dimension D=10 or D=11 for the imbedding space. Hence the new interpretation of gamma matrices, proposed already years ago, has very profound consequences and convincingly demonstrates that TGD approach is indeed internally consistent.

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