How the arrow of geometric time at the level of space-time and imbedding space is induced from the arrow of subjective time identified in terms of sequence of quantum jumps forming a fractal hierarchy of quantum jumps within quantum jumps? This is one of the long lasting puzzles of TGD and TGD inspired theory of consciousness. I have been pondering this question quite intensively during last years. The last blog posting about the problem has title Mystery of time again.

In zero energy ontology (ZEO) the geometry of CD (I often use the sloppy notation CD==CD× CP_{2}, where the latter CD is defined as the intersection of future and past directed light-cones) is that of double light-cone (double pyramid) and this must relate closely to the problem at hand. An easy manner to obtain absolute arrow of geometric time at least statistically is to assume that imbedding space is M^{4}+× CP_{2} - that is product of future like cone with CP_{2}. The problem is however that of finding a convincing quantal mechanism generating the arrow of time, and also explaining why the geometric arrow of time sometimes changes from the standard one (say for phase conjugate laser beams).

The latest vision about the generation of the arrow of geometric time the level of imbedding space and space-time involves rather radical features but is consistent with the second law if generalized so that the geometric arrow of time at the level of imbedding level alternates as state function reduction takes place alternately at opposite light-like boundaries of a fixed CD. If the partially non-deterministic dynamics at space-time level defines a correlate for the dissipative dynamics of quantum jumps, the arrow of geometric time level at space-time level is constant (space-time surface can assignable to the state function reductions can be seen as folded surface spanned between boundaries of CD) and entropy defines monotonically increasing time coordinate. This is rather radical revision of the standard view but makes definite predictions: in particular syntropic aspects of the physics of living matter could be assigned with the non-standard direction of geometric time at the space-time level.

This approach hower still suffers from a defect. CDs are regarded as completely non-dynamical: once CD is created it remains the same from quantum jump to quantum jump and thus serves as a fixed arena of dynamics. This cannot be the case.

**Some questions about CDs and their quantum dynamics**

One can raise several questions relating to CDs.

- CDs are assumed to form a fractal hierarchy of CDs within CDs. The size scale of CD has been argued to come as an integer multiple of CP
_{2}size scale on basis of number theoretic arguments. One can ask whether CDs can overlap and interact and what interaction means.

- What is the proper interpretation of CD? Could CD correspond to a spotlight of consciousness directed to a particular region of space-time surface, so that space-time surface need not end at the boundaries of CD as also generalized Feynman diagrammatics mildly suggests? Or do the space-time surfaces end at the boundaries of CD so that CD defines a sub-Universe?

- Should one assign CD to every subsystem - even elementary particles and fermion serving as their building bricks? Can one identify CD as a carrier of topologically quantized classical fields associated with a particle?

- In ZEO one can in principle imagine a creation of CD from and its disappearance to vacuum. It is still unclear whether the space-time sheets associated with CD restricted to the interior of CD or whether they can continue outside CD.

For the first option appearance of CD would be a creation of sub-Universe contained by CD. CD could be assigned with any sub-system. For the latter option the appearance of CD would be a generation of spotlight of consciousness directing attention to a particular region of imbedding space and thus to the portions of space-time surfaces inside it. Quantum superposition of space-time surfaces is actually in question and should be determined before the presence of CD by vacuum functional. How to describe possible creation and disappearance of CDs quantally, is not clear. For instance, what is the amplitude for the appearance of a new CD from vacuum in given quantum jump?

- CDs have various moduli and one could assign to them quantum dynamics. The position of cm or either tip of CD in M
^{4}defines moduli as does also the point of CP_{2}defining the origin of complex Eguchi-Hanson coordinates in which U(2)⊂ SU(3) acts linearly: these points are in general assumed to be different at the two ends of CD. If either tip of CD is fixed the Lorentz boost leaving the tip fixed, moves the other along constant proper time hyperboloid H^{3}and the tesselations defined by the factor space H^{3}/Γ, where Γ is discrete subgroup of SL(2,C), are favored for number theoretical reasons.

Quantum classical correspondence inspires the question whether the boost is determined completely by the four-momentum assignable to the positive/negative energy part of zero energy states and corresponds to the four-velocity β defined by the ratio P/M of total four-momentum and mass for the CD in question. It seems that this kind of assumption can be justified only in semiclassical approximation.

- In ZEO cm degrees of freedom of CD cannot carry Poincare charges. One can however assign the Poincare charges of the positive energy part of zero energy state to a wave function depending on the coordinate differences m
_{12}defining the relative coordinate for the tips of the CD.

The most general option is that the size scale of CD is continuous. This would allow to realize momentum eigen state as the analogs of plane waves as a function of the position m

_{12}of the (say) upper tip of CD relative to the lower tip.

The size scale of CD has been however assumed to be quantized. That is, the temporal distance T between the tips comes as an integer multiple of CP

_{2}time T_{CP2}: this scale is about 10^{4}Planck lengths so that this discretization has not practical consequences. Discretization is suggested both by the number theoretical vision, the finite measurement resolution, and by the general features of the U-matrix expressible as collection of M-matrices. Indeed in ZEO, one naturally obtains an infinite collection of U-matrices labelled by an integer, which would correspond to the Lorentz invariant temporal distance T_{n}=nT_{CP2}between the tips. The scaling up of the temporal distance would represent scaling of CD in the rest system defined by the fixed tip thus translating the second tip with integer multiple of T_{CP2}from T_{n1}to T_{n2}.

A further quantization would relate to the tesselations defined by the subgroups Γ. The counterparts of plane waves for the momentum eigenstates would be defined in a discretized version of Minkowski space obtained by dividing it to a sequence of discretized hyperboloids with proper time distance a=nT

_{CP2}from the lower tip of CD.

- There is evidence that one can assign a CDs with a fixed size scale to a given particle as secondary p-adic length scale: for electron this size scale would correspond to Mersenne prime M
_{127}and frequency 10 Hz defining a fundamental biorhythm. This would give a deep connection between elementary particle physics and physics in macroscopic length scales. The integer multiples of the secondary p-adic length size scale would correspond to integer values of the effective Planck constant.

A natural interpretation of this scale would be as infrared cutoff so that the wave functions approximating momentum eigenstates and depending on the relative coordinate m

_{12}would be restricted in the region between light-cone boundary and hyperboloid a=M_{127}T_{0}. Similar restriction would take place for all elementary particles. For particle with effective Planck constant hbar_{eff}=nhbar_{0}the IR cutoff would be n-multiple of that defined by the secondary p-adic time scale.

**Could CDs allow to understand the simultaneous wave-particle nature of quantum states?**

One of the paradoxical features of quantum theory is that we observe always particles - even with well-defined momentum - to have rather well-defined spatial orbits. As if spatial localization would occur in quantum measurements always and would be a key element of perception and state function reduction process. This raises a heretic question: could it be possible that the localized particles in some sense have a well-defined momentum. In standard quantum theory this is definitely not possible. The assignment of CD with particle - or any physical system - however suggests that that this paradoxical looking assignment is possible. Particle would be localized with respect to (say) the lower tip of CD and delocalized with respect to (say) the upper tip and localization of the the lower tip would imply delocalization of the upper tip.

It is indeed natural to assume that either tip of CD - say lower one - is localized in M^{4} in state function reduction. Unless one is willing to make additional assumptions, this implies not only the non-prepared character of the state at the upper tip, but also a delocalization of the upper tip itself by non-triviality of M-matrix: one has quantum superpositions of worlds characterized CDs with fixed lower tip. The localization at the lower tip would correspond to the fact that we experience the world as classical. Each zero energy state would be prepared at the either (say lower) end of CD so that its lower tip would have a fixed position in M^{4}. The unprepared upper tip could have a wave function in the space of all possible CDs with a fixed lower tip.

One could also assign the spinor harmonics of M^{4}× CP_{2} to the relative coordinates m_{12} and their analogs in CP_{2} degrees of freedom. The notion of CD would therefore make possible to realize simultaneously the paricle lbehavior in position space (localization of the lower tip of CD) and wave like nature of the state (superposition of momentum eigenstates for the upper tip relative to the lower tip).

This vision is only a heuristic guess. One should demonstrate that the average dynamical behavior for coordinate differences m_{12} corresponds to that for a free particle with given four-momentum for a given CD and fixed quantum numbers for the positive energy part of the state.

**The arrow of geometric time at the level of imbedding space and CDs**

In the earlier argument the arrow of geometric time at imbedding space level was argued to relate to the fact that zero energy states are prepared only at the either end of CD but not both. This is certainly part of the story but something more concrete would be needed. In any case, the experienced flow of time should relate to what happens CDs but in the proposed model CDs are not affected in the quantum jump. Th is would leave only the drifting of sub-CDs as a mechanism generating the arrow of geometric time at imbedding space level. It is however difficult to concretize this option.

Could one understand the arrow of geometric time at imbedding space level as an increase of the size of the size of CDs appearing in zero energy state? The moduli space of CDs with a fixed upper/lower tip is without discretization future/past light-cone. Therefore there is more room in the future than in past for a particular CD and the situation is like diffusion in future light-cone meaning that the temporal distance from the tip is bound to increase in statistical sense. This means gradual scaling up of the size of the CD. A natural interpretation would be in terms of cosmological expansion.

There are two options to consider depending on whether the imbedding space is M^{4}× CP_{2} or M^{4}_{+}× CP_{2}. The latter option allows local Poincare symmetry and is consistent with standard Robertson-Walker cosmology so that it cannot be excluded. The first option leads to Russian doll cosmology containing cosmologies within cosmologies in ZEO and is aesthetically more pleasing.

- Consider first the M
^{4}× CP_{2}option. At each tip of CD one has arrow of geometric time at the level of imbedding space and these arrows are opposite. What does this mean? Do the tips correspond to separate conscious entities becoming conscious alternately in state function reductions? Or do they correspond to a single conscious entity with memories?

Could sleep awake cycle correspond to a sequence of state function reductions at opposite ends of personal CD? It would seem that we are conscious (in the sense we understand consciousness) only after state function reduction. Could we be conscious and have sensory percepts about the other end of CD during sleep state but have no memories about this period so that we would be living double life without knowing it? Does the unprepared and delocalized part (with respect to m

_{12}) of zero energy state contribute to the conscious experience accompanying state function reduction? Holography would suggest that this is not the case.

If CD corresponds to a spotlight of consciousness, the time span of conscious experience could increase in both time directions for the latter option. The span of human collective consciousness has been increasing in both direction all the time: we are already becoming conscious what has probably happened immediately after the Big Bang. Could this evolution be completely universal and coded to the fundamental physics?

- If the imbedding space is assumed to be M
^{4}_{+}× CP_{2}, one obtains only one arrow of time in the long run. The reason is that the lower tip of any CD sooner or later reaches δ M^{4}_{+}× CP_{2}and further expansion in this direction becomes impossible so that only the expansion of CD to the future direction becomes possible.

**Summary**

The proposed vision for the dynamics of the moduli of CDs is rather general and allows a concrete understanding of the arrow of geometric time at imbedding space level and binds it directly to expansion of CDs as analog of cosmic expansion. The previous vision about how the arrow of geometric time could emerge at the level of space-time level remains essentially un-changed and allows the increase of syntropy to be understood as the increase of entropy but for a non-standard correspondence between the arrows of subjective time and the arrow of imbedding space time.

Imbedding space spinor harmonics characterizing the ground states of the representations of symplectic group of δ M^{4}_{+/-}× CP_{2} define the counterparts of single particle wave functions assignable to the relative coordinates of the second tip of CD with respect to the one fixed in state function reduction. The surprising outcome is the possibility to understand the paradoxical aspects of wave-particle duality in terms of bi-local character of CD: localization of given tip implies delocalization of the other tip.

For backbground see the chapter About the Nature of Time of "TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness".

## 10 comments:

http://phys.org/news/2012-10-half-century-long-quest-chemical-reactions-quantum.html

particles are dependant on dissipation?

Matti, you seem to be lost in what Leibniz called the labyrinth of the continuum. His solution, followed by Kant, was to say that space and time are ideal, but that was just the Scholastics' Mind of God. There's now a Prof. Arthur at McMaster who looks at Reichenbach's answer, but his blockbuster paper went unpublished. Dig a bit, and you'll see why: the Scholastic syncategoremata (impredicates) come from Buddhist logic, and their universal grammar from the Arabs. This always was a global problem. And for Latinos like Jorge Luis Borges, the labyrinth IS reality (but that IS is impredicative)...

In Ulla's last link,the 3K microwave background is just the edge of wave-chemistry, where it dissipates in radiation. After this, Dark Matter gets reinvented as H/He/Li, and to me the point is that they are all below the margin of alpha-particle interactions, which require 8 nucleons. I think this very interesting and important: all the marginal phenomena in atomic matter are not alpha-renormalized, and in that sense are "sub-atomic".

Dear Orwin,

to be honest, I did not understand a single word from either comment!;-) Seems that our conceptual reference frames are very different.

Orwin,

the 8-bit as alpha particles seems interesting. But they are trialities, how then would they form the 8-bit? An analogy with the color charachetrs for particles?

I ask because the C is basic for life, and it is formed from alpha-particles, still working with octonions?

Don't worry about Matti's comment that much. He only says he don't know :)

Dear Matti,

in the Chapter time and consiousness, i have some questions:

“1. In standard picture the attention would gradually shift towards geometric future and spacetime in 4-D sense would remain fixed. Now however the fact that quantum state is quantum

superposition of space-time surfaces allows to assume that the attention of the conscious observer

is directed to a fixed volume of 8-D imbedding space.”

I don’t understand the sentence: "the attention of the conscious observer is directed to a fixed volume of 8-D imbedding space.”

Let makes clear what I understand: I mean conscious observer a mind like space-time sheet with sequence of finite time duration space time surfaces as subselves glued to a larger space-time sheet as larger self (is it correct). So what does it means attention of sequence of finite time duration space time surfaces?!

In another paragraph you noted “Both the landscape and observer space-time sheet remain in the same position in imbedding space but both are modified by this shift in each quantum jump.”

I understand from it: two space-time sheet change their relative position as shift in each quantum jump but they are located at the same position yet!!! How it is possible? Maybe I think about them very classical ;-)

Excellent question. Before I say anything about time I must tell that there are three chapters related to the problem and they reflect the evolution of ideas during 15 years or so. I have had several quite different views about this relation.

"Time and Consciousness" at

http://tgdtheory.com/public_html/hologram/hologram.html#timesc

is the oldest chapter.

"Time, Spacetime, and Consciousness"

http://tgdtheory.com/public_html/hologram/hologram.html#time

came next.

"About the Nature of Time" at

http://tgdtheory.com/public_html/tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html#timenature

is the latest one and summarizes several approaches in chronological order. Last sections of this chapter represent the mechanism that I believe is nearest to the truth. I have also done my best to update the older chapters by telling something about the newest views.

To be continued....

Concerning your questions.

H: “1. In standard picture the attention would gradually shift towards geometric future and spacetime in 4-D sense would remain fixed. Now however the fact that quantum state is quantum

superposition of space-time surfaces allows to assume that the attention of the conscious observer

is directed to a fixed volume of 8-D imbedding space.”

I don’t understand the sentence: "the attention of the conscious observer is directed to a fixed volume of 8-D imbedding space.”

A: This statement refers to the classical model in which CD which is taken to be "spotlight of consciousness". I assumed that it is just fixed for the reason that I did not have idea about how to introduce the dynamics of CD! Nor even idea of introducing this dynamics! The arrow of imbedding space time corresponds to quantum arrow of zero energy state: upper/lower boundary is prepared and opposite boundary not. This is somewhat unsatisfactory: one would like to have something more concrete.

The arrow at the level of space-time surface correspond to the arrow implied by dissipative dynamics due to multifurcations relating closely to the emergence of effective values of Planck constant coming as multiples of ordinary Planck constant. Multifurcations are there because of huge vacuum degeneracy of Kahler action.

This leads to "bath towel argument". Each zero energy state resulting in the sequence of state function reductions at opposite boundaries of CD gives rise to a "quantum average space-time surface" inside fixed CD. These space-time surface can be thought of as forming the analog of folded bath towel ranging from lower boundary to upper and then back to lower and so on.... There is inherent arrow of geometric time due to second law so that the self associated with this space-time sheet does not observe the change of the *imbedding space arrow of time* but experiences single arrow of time. This argument is of course open to criticism.

In this posting I propose the dynamics for CDs by making purely classical view about self quantal: CD is replaced by quantum superposition of CDs which all have fixed second tip.

a) Self corresponds to quantum superposition superposition of CD:s of various sizes and Lorentz boots with a fixed lower/upper tip. Next state function reduction implies localizes of upper/low tip and delocalization of lower/upper tip. This brings in more concrete imbedding space arrow of time. The reason is that the space labeling CDs consist of hyperboloids for which the temporal distance between tips is integer multiple of CP_2 time scale. This space is analogous to half line and quantum transitions induce diffusion leading gradually to the direction of future. This is variant of basic argument saying that inside light-cone there is more room in future than in past.

Note however that both ends of CD drift downwards in M^4. If ends correspond to different selves then they both have fixed arrows of imbedding space time which are opposite. If one assumes that imbedding space is M^4_+ xCP_2 then the drifting at the lower boundary eventually stops since it is not possible to get below the big bang and one has just one arrow of time and timeless self near the moment of big bang!

b) Also now arrow of time at space-time level results from the "fold bath showel" argument and the new element is argument for imbedding space time as resulting from gradual growth of CD. Spotlight of consiousness suffers cosmic expansion!

H: Let makes clear what I understand: I mean conscious observer a mind like space-time sheet with sequence of finite time duration space time surfaces as subselves glued to a larger space-time sheet as larger self (is it correct).

A: Self has both space-time correlates and imbedding space correlates. What you say above is my original articulation for the idea that hierarchy of space-time sheets glued to each other corresponds to hierarchy of selves. These space-time surfaces would be within CDs each defining spotlights of consciousness.

H: So what does it means attention of sequence of finite time duration space time surfaces?!

This is a question which goes to the point and leads to the basic question which I made also in the posting.

"Does the space-time surface within CD continue outside the CD in which case CD would represent attention directed to a region of CD or does it end in which case CD would represent small sub-Universe possible in ZEO? Or are both options realized?"

I have not been able to provide a clearcut answer to this question.

H: In another paragraph you noted “Both the landscape and observer space-time sheet remain in the same position in imbedding space but both are modified by this shift in each quantum jump.”

I understand from it: two space-time sheet change their relative position as shift in each quantum jump but they are located at the same position yet!!! How it is possible? Maybe I think about them very classical ;-))

A: Also this statement assumes non-dynamical and non-quantal CDs. The above argument explains how the arrow of time at space-time level emerges and I do not repeat it.

The important point is that I do not assume that shift of position for space-time sheet in fixed direction is responsible for the flow of time and its arrow. This mechanism would of course be a very natural guess, and I have also played with it and also with its variant in which CD shifts towards fixed time direction. This however leads to artificial scenarios and one does not obtain arrow of imbedding space time naturally. I only can build a consistent view by reducing the arrow of time to the gradual increase of average CD size in the sequence of quantum jumps: mechanism is essentially same as for diffusion in light-cone: particle necessary drifts to the direction of future.

http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/hydrogen/index.html

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