### Quantum Hall effect and Hierarchy of Planck Constants

I have already earlier proposed the explanation of FQHE, anyons, and fractionization of quantum numbers in terms of hierarchy of Planck constants realized as a generalization of the imbedding space H=M

^{4}×CP

_{2}to a book like structure. The book like structure applies separately to CP

_{2}and to causal diamonds (CD Ì M

^{4}) defined as intersections of future and past directed light-cones. The pages of the Big Book correspond to singular coverings and factor spaces of CD (CP

_{2}) glued along 2-D subspace of CD (CP

_{2}) and are labeled by the values of Planck constants assignable to CD and CP

_{2}and appearing in Lie algebra commutation relations. The observed Planck constant hbar, whose square defines the scale of M

^{4}metric corresponds to the ratio of these Planck constants. The key observation is that fractional filling factor results if hbar is scaled up by a rational number.

In the new chapter Quantum Hall effect and Hierarchy of Planck Constants of "p-Adic Length Scale Hypothesis and Hierarchy of Planck Constants" I try to formulate more precisely this idea. The outcome is a rather detailed view about anyons on one hand, and about the Kähler structure of the generalized imbedding space on the other hand.

- Fundamental role is played by the assumption that the Kähler gauge potential of CP
_{2}contains a gauge part with no physical implications in the context of gauge theories but contributing to physics in TGD framework since U(1) gauge transformations are representations of symplectic transformations of CP_{2}. Also in the case of CD it makes also sense to speak about Kähler gauge potential. The gauge part codes for Planck constants of CD and CP_{2}and leads to the identification of anyons as states associated with partonic 2-surfaces surrounding the tip of CD and fractionization of quantum numbers. Explicit formulas relating fractionized charges to the coefficients characterizing the gauge parts of Kähler gauge potentials of CD and CP_{2}are proposed based on some empirical input. - One important implication is that Poincare and Lorentz invariance are broken inside given CD although they remain exact symmetries at the level of the geometry of world of classical worlds (WCW). The interpretation is as a breaking of symmetries forced by the selection of quantization axis.
- Anyons would basically correspond to matter at 2-dimensional "partonic" surfaces of macroscopic size surrounding the tip of the light-cone boundary of CD and could be regarded as gigantic elementary particle states with very large quantum numbers and by charge fractionization confined around the tip of CD. Charge fractionization and anyons would be basic characteristic of dark matter (dark only in relative sense). Hence it is not surprising that anyons would have applications going far beyond condensed matter physics. Anyonic dark matter concentrated at 2-dimensional surfaces would play key key role in the the physics of stars and black holes, and also in the formation of planetary system via the condensation of the ordinary matter around dark matter. This assumption was the basic starting point leading to the discovery of the hierarchy of Planck constants. In living matter membrane like structures would represent a key example of anyonic systems as the model of DNA as topological quantum computer indeed assumes.
- One of the basic questions has been whether TGD forces the hierarchy of Planck constants realized in terms of generalized imbedding space or not. The condition that the choice of quantization axes has a geometric correlate at the imbedding space level motivated by quantum classical correspondence of course forces the hierarchy: this has been clear from the beginning. It is now clear that first principle description of anyons requires the hierarchy in TGD Universe. The hierarchy reveals also new light to the huge vacuum degeneracy of TGD and reduces it dramatically at pages for which CD corresponds to a non-trivial covering or factor space, which suggests that mathematical existence of the theory necessitates the hierarchy of Planck constants. Also the proposed manifestation of Equivalence Principle at the level of symplectic fusion algebras as a duality between descriptions relying on the symplectic structures of CD and CP
_{2}forces the hierarchy of Planck constants.

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