Thursday, December 03, 2009

Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life

Mark McWilliams has used to email me links to interesting articles. Last Sunday I realized that my mind is completely empty of thoughts and in lack of anything better decided to scan the emails. The link about Snowball Earth model for pre-Cambrian climate brought to my mind the Expanding Earth model that I developed earlier to explain Cambrian Explosion and the strange finding that continents seem to fit nicely along their boundaries to form single super-continent provided that the radius of Earth is one half of the recent radius. I realized that this model forces a profound revision of models of pre-Cambrian geology, climate, and biology. I glue below the abstract of the new chapter Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life of "Genes and Memes".

TGD inspired quantum cosmology predicts that astrophysical objects do not follow cosmic expansion except in jerk-wise quantum leaps increasing the gigantic value of the gravitational Planck constant characterizing space-time mediating gravitational interactions between two masses or gravitational self interactions. This assumption provides explanation for the apparent cosmological constant.

Also planets are predicted to expand in a stepwise manner. This provides a new version of Expanding Earth theory originally postulated to explain the intriguing findings suggesting that continents have once formed a connected continent covering almost the entire surface of Earth but with radius which was one half of the recent one.

This leads also to a rather fascinating vision about biology. The mysterious Cambrian Explosion in which a large number of new species emerged suddenly (realized already Darwin as the strongest objection against his theory) could be understood if the life would have gone to underground lakes and seas formed during the expansion period as fractures were formed and the underground cavities expanded and were filled with water. This would have allowed the life to escape cosmic radiation, meteoric bombardment, and the extremely cold climate during Proterozoic period preceding the Cambrian Explosion and migrate back as highly developed life forms as the period of glaciations ended.

Before the Proterozoic era the radius of Earth would have been one half of its recent value and started to grow with gradually accelerating rate. This forces to rewrite the entire geological and climate history of Earth during the Proterozoic period.

  1. The postulated physically implausible cyclic appearance of single connected super-continent containing all land mass can be given up and replaced with a single continent containing large inland seas. There is no need to postulate the existence of series of super-oceans whose ocean floor would have subduced totally so that no direct information about them would exist nowadays.

  2. The dominating model for pre-Cambrian climate is so called Snowball Earth model inspired by the finding that signatures of glaciations have been found at regions of Earth, which should have been near Equator during the Proterozoic. Snowball Earth model has several difficulties: in particular, there is a lot of evidence that a series of ordinary glaciations was in question. For R/2 option the regions located to Equator would have actually been near North Pole so that the glaciations would have indeed been ordinary glaciations proceeding from the poles. A killer prediction is the existence of non-glaciated regions at apparent southern latitudes around about 45 degrees and there is evidence for these indeed exists (the article is in finnish but contains a brief abstract in english)! The model makes also testable paleomagnetic killer predictions. In particular, during periods when the magnetic dipole in the direction of rotation axis the directions of the magnetic fields for R/2 model are predicted to be same at South Pole and apparent Equator and opposite for the standard option.

For details see the new chapter Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life of "Genes and Memes".

10 Comments:

At 3:09 AM, Blogger Ulla said...

astrophysical objects do not follow cosmic expansion except in jerk-wise quantum leaps increasing the gigantic value of the gravitational Planck constant. This assumption provides explanation for the apparent cosmological constant. - Would you like to explain how? And why are they not then turning invisible?

Also planets are predicted to expand in a stepwise manner. - But the animals on the contrary becomes smaller and smaller. They are becoming more complex? Have you any explanation for this? Is the body size and complexity a mark for hbar increase? Or of we talk nerves, the nerve net complexity?

Also humans follow this principle maybe. In old myths there is talking of giants. This late increase in body length is just an illusion, depending on bad circumstances for people in the agrar era.

 
At 4:14 AM, Blogger Matti Pitkanen said...

Q: astrophysical objects do not follow cosmic expansion except in jerk-wise quantum leaps increasing the gigantic value of the gravitational Planck constant. This assumption provides explanation for the apparent cosmological constant. - Would you like to explain how? And why are they not then turning invisible?

A: The expansion would take place in accelerating manner. Phase transition increasing Planck constant corresponds to criticality. Space-time correlates for critical periods correspond to Robertson-Walker cosmologies determined apart from single parameter- the duration. These cosmologies represent accelerating expansion: in particular, "pressure" is negative.
At more "microscopic" level space-time sheets mediating gravitational interaction would correspond to magnetic flux tube like structures and string tension corresponds to negative pressure in averages Robertson-Walker description. The Compton lengths of particles are enormous for gravitational Planck constants of order hbar_gr= GMm/v_0, v_0<1 (c=1) is a parameter with physical dimensions of velocity so that the matter at the flux tubes has constant density and description in terms of cosmological constant is expected to make sense at least approximately.

Q: Also planets are predicted to expand in a stepwise manner. - But the animals on the contrary becomes smaller and smaller. They are becoming more complex? Have you any explanation for this? Is the body size and complexity a mark for hbar increase? Or of we talk nerves, the nerve net complexity?

A: As a matter fact, the animals becomes gigantic during the expansion period! Not only dinosaurs. Dinosaurs had very small brains and small animals using their metabolic energy to thinking became the winners in the fight for survival. The increase of the body size could be understood as a reduction of surface gravity by a factor 1/4 during expansion period. Also oxygenation of atmosphere would have contributed. The very fast expansion in the interval 250 Myr- 65 Myr could also explain the huge extinction (95 per cent of marine species and 72 per cent of terrestrial species disappeared) at the beginning of this period. Massive methane burts from underground lakes and seas induced by very rapid expansion would have caused the warming of the climate. Also the failure of the genetically determined biorhytms to follow rapidly changing diurnal rhythm which developed from 3+3 hours to 12+12 hours could have contributed to the extinction.


Q: Also humans follow this principle maybe. In old myths there is talking of giants. This late increase in body length is just an illusion, depending on bad circumstances for people in the agrar era.

A: These myths might have some symbolic content. In fact, the cultural evolution would have given us gigantic magnetic bodies (cyclotron frequencies would directly relate to the size of the particular part of magnetic body).

Maybe all myths somehow reflect our future or past or future. Shamans went under ground in trance. Maybe this somehow reflects the past of life. In TGD inspired theory of consciousness magnetic bodies of order size of Earth and even larger are the intentional agents. Could shamans could have some kind of sensory input about the world below us? And what happened to the life in underground lakes and seas? Did all species migrate to the surface of Earth or could some underground artists be still there;-)?

 
At 6:30 AM, Blogger Ulla said...

Oh, my God so very busy you are:)

Q. Also oxygenation of atmosphere would have contributed. - When the dinosaurs lived the plants were huge, acc. to what I know because of a prior greenhouse climat. The dinosaurs was not born in an expansion period? The plants were very poor in energy, and that forced the animals to eat huge amounts. Finally that equation did kill the animals. But why did not the accommodation in the natural selection function then? Something big happened?

One theory is also really big vulcanic series that would give rise to a greenhouse climat. Or impact from the sun/cosmos? Vulcanic activity is also known to grow in times of greenhouse climate. Mae says the water in the ocean stood still, and that lack of movement made the oxygen depletion.

Mae van Who talked of these periods of depletion of oxygen in the seas, that turned the seas to poison waters (SH-, and methane) and that was the reason for the extinctions. She thinks that the same is happening now.
These periods have occurred in quite even intervals, together with an ice period. (Could here be some link?)Lubos Motl has written a story of this, http://motls.blogspot.com/2006/07/carbon-dioxide-and-temperatures-ice.html
See also the very low correlation in http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/Carboniferous_climate.html
In my mind there is quite another reason behind the greenhouse climate than that we are told these days.

Q. a reduction of surface gravity by a factor 1/4 during expansion period.
- When the poles shift there is an extincion of the magnetic force acc. to Becker. This would acc. to you invoke on the gravity?
The poleshifting period is very sharp and it stresses the nervous systems very hard. Becker thought that it was this stress that made the big animal extinction period. The reason why mammals survived was their complex nervous systems.
Also the poleshift is actual now, and Becker warns us for the increase in 'electromagnetic pollution' that also stresses the nerve nets. Mostly the researchers talk of migration of the magnetic poles, but that don't mean such a sharp magnetic field extinction. Also our shield to cosmic radiation is gone during these periods.

Q. In fact, the cultural evolution would have given us gigantic magnetic bodies (cyclotron frequencies would directly relate to the size of the particular part of magnetic body). - Why would the cultural evolution do that? If it would not be accompanied by a biological evolution? In fact, the human brain is still growing in size (and complexity, I assume).

You talk of the magnetic body as if the culture would make it grow, but not the biological change. As I see it they must go hand in hand. You realize something and it is seen in the body as a change, and later in the genome too. Or the opposite way. A change in the physical properties in the body gives a change also in the psyche. And you avoided my question about the nerve net complexity. A more complex net gives a higher hbar?

And I think that life in the cages are still very much unexplored. In fact most of the new species (very many are still not known) are very small. We go to Moon and Mars to see if there is life, but our own Earth and its underground life is too difficult to explore:-)

 
At 7:56 AM, Blogger Ulla said...

Some reflections:
PRE-PANGEA, Carboniferous Period, 325 million years ago. Then the continents were spreading, North America and Europe were converging to form the supercontinent Euramerica. Later came the PANGEA, as all the continents converged to form a single giant supercontinent. Landmass distribution is a factor behind greenhouse climate? 100,000 year cycle: Variations in the shape of Earth's elliptical orbit, is a factor too? http://www.homepage.montana.edu/~geol445/hyperglac/time1/milankov.htm

Oceanic crust is being continuously created through the process of seafloor spreading, and continuously consumed through subduction. Because of this continuous recycling, no oceanic crust is older than 190 million years. See an animation of subduction in action. http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/continents.html

Another theory is that gravity is pulling the older, colder, and thus heavier ocean floor with more force than the newer, lighter seafloor. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/intro.html

the crust surrounding the midocean ridges showed alternating bands -- each band magnetized with a polarity opposite the surrounding bands. They suggested that as new sea-floor crust was formed around the rift in the midocean ridge, it magnetized differently, depending upon the polarity of the planet at that time.
the Jaramillo Event, the wholesale reversal of Earth's magnetic fields some 900,000 years ago. This confirmed the theory that Earth's magnetic field had flip-flopped through the planet's life, and it made Matthews and Vine's 1963 finding quite clear. They realized that the pattern of reversals matched perfectly the magnetic profile they had compiled of the sea floor. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/do63ma.html

the Earth's magnetic field reverses at intervals, ranging from tens of thousands to many millions of years, with an average interval of approximately 250,000 years. The last such event, called the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal, is theorized to have occurred some 780,000 years ago. propose that the geodynamo first turns itself off, either spontaneously or through some external action like a comet impact, and then restarts itself with the magnetic "North" pole pointing either North or South. External events are not likely to be routine causes of magnetic field reversals. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth%27s_magnetic_field#Magnetic_field_reversals

 
At 11:51 PM, Blogger Matti Pitkanen said...

See my answers below.

Q. Also oxygenation of atmosphere would have contributed. - When the dinosaurs lived the plants were huge, acc. to what I know because of a prior greenhouse climat. The dinosaurs was not born in an expansion period? The plants were very poor in energy, and that forced the animals to eat huge amounts. Finally that equation did kill the animals. But why did not the accommodation in the natural selection function then? Something big happened?


One theory is also really big vulcanic series that would give rise to a greenhouse climat. Or impact from the sun/cosmos? Vulcanic activity is also known to grow in times of greenhouse climate. Mae says the water in the ocean stood still, and that lack of movement made the oxygen depletion.

Mae van Who talked of these periods of depletion of oxygen in the seas, that turned the seas to poison waters (SH-, and methane) and that was the reason for the extinctions. She thinks that the same is happening now.

These periods have occurred in quite even intervals, together with an ice period. (Could here be some link?)Lubos Motl has written a story of this, http://motls.blogspot.com/2006/07/carbon-dioxide-and-temperatures-ice.html. See also the very low correlation in http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/Carboniferous_climate.html
In my mind there is quite another reason behind the greenhouse climate than that we are told these days.

A: Gigantic life forms evolved during expansion period and weakenining or gravitation would have made possible large bodies. Certainly also the huge metabolic needs were one reason for extinction. Plus the emergence of small-sized big-brained. Plus a possible catastrophic event (say meteor inpact). Formation of volcanoes would have been natural implication of rapid expansion of Earth. Formation of rifts giving rise to ocean floors is analogous process.

Expansion meant reduction of gravitational binding energy of Earth and required therefore energy (by energy conservation). Reduction of temperature could be due to the feeding of thermal energy to the expansion and could have caused a series of ice ages (I concentrate in the postings to much earlier ice ages during Neoproterozoic during 1-.5 Gy and proposed similar expansion for the ice ages which inspired Snowball Earth model).

Lubos has extremely emotional attitude to climate warming. He is simply wrong when he believes tghat carbo-di-oxide, methane, etc.. do not affect temperature. As a matter fact, there is positive feed back so that you cannot tell whether rising of temperature increases the amount of CO_2 or vice versa or both.

As far as climate change is considered we must minimize the risk. This is after all about the survival of our civilization as the great extinction teaches. The minimum risk option is to base the actions on the assumption that we are causing the warming of the climate. Theories can be rewritten but not civilizations.

I continue my response later.

 
At 11:52 PM, Blogger Matti Pitkanen said...

Q. a reduction of surface gravity by a factor 1/4 during expansion period.
- When the poles shift there is an extincion of the magnetic force acc. to Becker. This would acc. to you invoke on the gravity?

The poleshifting period is very sharp and it stresses the nervous systems very hard. Becker thought that it was this stress that made the big animal extinction period. The reason why mammals survived was their complex nervous systems.
Also the poleshift is actual now, and Becker warns us for the increase in 'electromagnetic pollution' that also stresses the nerve nets. Mostly the researchers talk of migration of the magnetic poles, but that don't mean such a sharp magnetic field extinction. Also our shield to cosmic radiation is gone during these periods.

A: Reduction of gravitational acceleration has nothing to do with pole reversal. Complex nervous system means also intelligence so that this just big brains-small body explanation.



Q. In fact, the cultural evolution would have given us gigantic magnetic bodies (cyclotron frequencies would directly relate to the size of the particular part of magnetic body). - Why would the cultural evolution do that? If it would not be accompanied by a biological evolution? In fact, the human brain is still growing in size (and complexity, I assume).

You talk of the magnetic body as if the culture would make it grow, but not the biological change. As I see it they must go hand in hand. You realize something and it is seen in the body as a change, and later in the genome too. Or the opposite way. A change in the physical properties in the body gives a change also in the psyche. And you avoided my question about the nerve net complexity. A more complex net gives a higher hbar?

And I think that life in the cages are still very much unexplored. In fact most of the new species (very many are still not known) are very small. We go to Moon and Mars to see if there is life, but our own Earth and its underground life is too difficult to explore:-)


A: The genomes of humans and primitive life forms are surprisingly near to each other and does not allow to understand cultural evolution. TGD inspired explanation for cultural evolution is a hierarchy of hyper genomes in which magnetic flux sheets integrate genomes of separate nuclei to string like structures and these structures in turn arrange in similar manner to form higher collective genomes. This process would be forced by the emergence of larger Planck constants forcing by magnetic flux quantization the flux sheets to become wider and traverse larger number of DNA treads. Cultural evolution would be basically evolution of magnetic bodies.
This would mean also integration neurons to larger structure and also integration of neural nets of separate individuals to large coherent wholes.

It would be interesting to look for fossils in underground lakes;-). In Mars there is a lot of methane and also underground lakes. The radius of Mars is one half of Earth. Maybe the expansion begins some day during the next gigayear;-).

 
At 12:29 AM, Blogger Matti Pitkanen said...

Ulla: Oceanic crust is being continuously created through the process of seafloor spreading, and continuously consumed through subduction. Because of this continuous recycling, no oceanic crust is older than 190 million years.

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

Response: Subduction and plate tectonics are predictions of TGD also. Continental plates do not expand and their formation is forced by the expansion as fractures are formed in Earth's crust. Only the liquid magma expands and creates continent floor in this manner. Standard Expanding Earth theories assume that also continent plates expand.

Sub-duction was not probably important during early times for R/2 option. Until 250 Gr the fraction of oceans about Earth's area could have been rather small. No need to postulate the series of oceans with exotic names whose sea floors disappeared by subduction leaving no signa about its existence. No need to postulate cyclic formation of connected super-continent which to my opinion is something really weird from physics point of view. I have not seen any physical justification for this hypothesis.
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Ulla: The crust surrounding the midocean ridges showed alternating bands -- each band magnetized with a polarity opposite the surrounding bands. They suggested that as new sea-floor crust was formed around the rift in the midocean ridge, it magnetized differently, depending upon the polarity of the planet at that time.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

Response: Yes. The variation of magnetization directions associated with mid-ocean ridges allowed to prove plate tectonics after 250 Myr. The rest is speculation since the super-ocean floors would have subduced away. Plate tectonics during this time interval is what also standard TGD predicts.

The basic test is following. The polarizations are predicted to be of same sign at apparent Equator and South Pole during periods when magnetic field was in South-North direction (this can be generalized).

If this is observed the only way out is acceptance of R/2 option since for R option the polarizatons should of same sign at real Equator and South pole and it is known that dipole field is a good approximation.

If the period of the rapid expansion took place after 250 Myr and R was still small enough it might be possible to use the data about magnetic polarizations in ocean floor to find whether R/2 (nearly so) or R option is correct.

The mission almost impossible would be to find an open-minded enough paleomagnetist living in open-minded enough academic environment to test the hypothesis! The needed data might already exist! Unfortunately, the recent day academic world is in Iceball Earth state and intelligent lifeforms have escaped Underground;-).

 
At 1:25 AM, Blogger Ulla said...

In this last part you are quite obviously right. The seafloor is max 190 million years old:) It the old floor was created in a period with reversed poles this is exactly the answer we should get if our Earth is growing? But you talked of expansion periods. That would mean we are facing such a period now.

About that temperature thing and its dependings on the carbon there are obviously more to it.The temperature of the Earth is regulated by many factors and carbon is just one of them. Today we have not a high cabonlevel in the atmosphere although it would grow to 1000 ppm. It is a very coarse simplification of the facts that we are fed with in our medias. Look at the link I gave and the figure.

As far as climate change is considered we must minimize the risk. This is after all about the survival of our civilization as the great extinction teaches. The minimum risk option is to base the actions on the assumption that we are causing the warming of the climate. Theories can be rewritten but not civilizations.

This is true. But this fact is very seriously misused by our politicians for their own purposes. This makes me very frustrated.

I saw in my mind how this theory of yours could also tell the reason we have this grenhouse climate, and what we eventually could do, that really would matter. The answer is not according to me to lower the carbonlevel. That is ridiculous. Instead we would allow the plants to grow and make big forrests. We do all things quite contrarily. We are smart as usual:) It can end in catastrophes.

I have much to read again:) Thanks for the troubles you give me:)

 
At 3:05 PM, Blogger Ulla said...

Sorry, I must ask again. Certainly stupid as usual:) And badly articulated:)

You said the gravity was smaller when the planet was smaller? But if it is the gravity that change? It was bigger and as it diminish the earth is expanding. As some kind of negative pressure. If the air and the atmosphere is growing too with the Universe growing that would be the case? In pictures the Earth is 'swimming' in gravity, but in reality it is enclosed in the Dirac Sea. The Planck constant is gravitational. Also the Dirac Sea in not even, but enlarges in jumps, like bubbles, that is the gravity is not even either (seen in accumulation of matter in the Universe, like matter on the watersurfice a calm day). If this Earth growing depends on the growing of the Dirac Sea? The growing of Earth happens when the gravity changes?

Also could supercontinents give a torsion to the Earth orbit? It would be natural.

How can sea water not move? The Coriolis force would force it to move, even if there was no wind? Can the Coriolis force change too?

And where came all the water from? I know I have asked this before:)

 
At 7:12 PM, Blogger Matti Pitkanen said...

Gravity is stronger by a factor 4 during R/2 period because it is proportional to 1/R^2. The change of gravitational constant is not in question: the change should be quite too large to be acceptable. Various standard physics mechanisms (say thermal expansion) fail to explain expanding earth.

Expansion would expand already existing pockets undergound and creat fractures since crust cannot expand too much before they break. Sea water flowed to the pockets. Also in Mars there is evidence for underground water.

Most expanding Earth theories assume that everything expands and lead to difficulties with plate tectonics. In TGD crust does not expand except in the beginning. But the breaking to plates takes place so that the model implies plate tectonics.

Today there is no expansion but there is a convective flow of magna from rifts and back below the continental plates: also this is initially induced by the expansion. Expanding Earth in TGD sense is a natural extension of tectonic plate model beyond the time when expansion ceased (roughly about 100 Myr).

 

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