### Strange trilepton events at CMS

Lubos Motl reports that CMS sees SUSY-like trilepton excesses. Also Matt Strassler tells about indications that something curious has been detected at the Large Hadron Collider. Probably a statistical fluctuation is in question as so many times earlier. The dream to discover SUSY easily leads to mis-interpretations. Trilepton events however provide an excellent opportunity to learn about SUSY in TGD framework.

**The recent view about TGD SUSY briefly**

Before continuing it is good to say something about what SUSY in TGD Universe might mean and also about expected masses of squarks and sleptons and intermediate gauge bosons in TGD Universe. The picture is of course preliminary and developing all the time in strong interaction with experimental input from LHC so that there is no guarantee that I agree with this view for the rest of my life.

- In TGD framework the super-partner of the particle is obtained by adding a the partonic 2-surface a parallelly moving right-handed neutrino or antineutrino so that one has
*N*=1 SUSY. It must be emphasized that one has higher SUSYs but they are badly broken. Allowing both right-handed neutrino and antineutrino one obtains*N*=2 SUSY and interpreting all fermionic oscillator operators as generators of SUSY one obtains badly broken SUSY with rather large*N*, which is however finite by finite measurement resolution inducing a cutoff on the number of fermionic oscillator operators. - R-parity is broken in TGD SUSY since sparticle can decay to particle and neutrino. Therefore all neutral sparticles manifesting themselves as missing energy in TGD framework eventually decay and produce neutrinos as the eventual missing energy. The decay rates to particles and neutrinos can however be so slow that photino and sneutrinos leave the reactor volume before decaying.
- The basic assumption is that particle and sparticle obey the same mass formula apart from p-adic mass scale that can be different. For instance, the masses of sleptons are half-octaves of lepton masses. This breaking of SUSY is extremely elegant and is absolutely essential part of ordinary particle massivation too explaining the enormous mass scale differences between neutrinos and top quark in a natural manner.
- I have proposed that the super-partners of M
_{107}quarks (ordinary quarks) and gluon could have the same mass scale but be dark in TGD sense, in other words have Planck constant which is integer multiple of the ordinary Planck constant. This is required by the fact that intermediate gauge boson decay widths do not allow light exotic particles. This hypothesis could allow to understand the exotic X and Y mesons and also the absence of smesons containing light squarks could be understood. Since shadronization is expected to proceed much faster than selectro-weak decays of squarks, the squarks of M_{89}hadron physics need not be dark and M_{89}shadrons might be there. The fruitless search for squarks would be based on wrong signatures if this the case and already now we would have direct evidence for the squarks of M_{89}hadron physics. - Only the decays of electro-weak gauginos and sleptons would produce the standard signatures.
- Charged sleptons must have large p-adic scales in TGD Universe. Ordinary leptons correspond to Mersenne prime M
_{127}, Gaussian Mersenne M_{G,113}, and Mersenne prime M_{107}. If also sleptons obey this rule, they would correspond to the Mersenne primes M_{89}and Gaussian Mersennes M_{G,n}, n= 79,73. Assuming that particle and sparticle obey the same mass formula apart from different p-adic mass scale, the masses of selectron, smuon, and stau would be about 267 GeV, 13.9 TeV, and 164.6 TeV. Only selectron is expected to be visible at LHC. - About the mass scales of sneutrinos it is difficult to say anything definite. A natural guess is that sneutrinos are relatively light so that they would be produced in the decays of sleptons and electro-weak gauginos. Same applies to photino. These particles are good candidates to missing energy unless their decay to particle plus neutrino is fast enough.
- There seems to be no strong constraints to the mass scales of sW and sZ. The mass scale could be even M
_{89}characterizing W and Z. p-Adic length scale hypothesis predicts that the p-adic mass scale is half octave of intermediate boson mass scale and if the Weinberg angle is same the masses are half octaves of W/Z masses.

- Charged sleptons must have large p-adic scales in TGD Universe. Ordinary leptons correspond to Mersenne prime M
- The most general option inspired by twistorial considerations (absence of IR divergences) and zero energy ontology is that both Higgs like states and Higgsinos and their higher spin generalizations are eaten so that the outcome is spectrum of massive states. This might have something do with the phenomenon in which some supersymmetry generators annihilate physical states. In any case the fermions at wormhole throats are always massless- even the virtual particles identified in terms of wormhole contacts consist of massless wormhole throats which can have also negative energy.

It is important to notice that trilepton events as signals for SUSY have nothing to do with squarks and gluinos for which I have proposed a non-standard interpretation in the previous postings (see this, this ,this) and in the article.

**How to interpret the trilepton events in TGD framework?**

Trilepton events represent the simplest SUSY signal and would be created in the decays W → sW+sZ. The decays Z→ sW^{+}+sW^{-} would give rise to dilepton events. Electro-weak gauginos would in turn decay and yield multi-lepton events. Neither W/Z boson nor the gauginos need to be on mass shell.

In the following I will discuss these decays taking seriously the above listed conjectures about SUSY a la TGD.

- Obviously the situation reduces to the study of the decays of sW and sZ.
- For sW the decay channels are sW→ W+sγ and sW→ L+sν
_{L}^{*}. W would decay to charged lepton-neutrino pair. One charged lepton would result in both cases. - For sZ the decay channels are sZ→ ν+sν
^{*}, sZ→ sW^{+}+W^{-}, and sZ→ sL^{-}+L^{+}and charge conjugates of these. For the second decay mode the decays of W^{+}and sW^{-}produce lepton antilepton pair. For the third decay mode selectron is the most plausible slepton candidate and is expected to have rather large masses in TGD Universe (about 267 GeV and thus off mass-shell). sL→ L+sγ is the most natural decay for slepton.

- For sW the decay channels are sW→ W+sγ and sW→ L+sν
- The decay cascade beginning with Z→ sW
^{+}+sW^{-}would produce 2 charged leptons (more generally even number of charged leptons) plus missing energy. Charged leptons would have opposite charges. No sleptons would be needed as intermediate states and all lepton families would be democratically represented as final states. - The decay cascade beginning with W→ sW+sZ would produce 2 or 3 charged leptons plus missing energy.
- For sZ→ sW
^{+}+W^{-}option 3 charged leptons would result and there would be a complete family democracy. For this option the rate is expected to be largest. - For the option having slepton as intermediate state, the large masses for smuon and stau would favor selectron for 3 lepton events. 3-lepton events would have charge signatures --+ or ++- following from charge conservation alone. The suggested large mass for selectron would however reduce also the rate of 3 lepton events considerably. Note that the reported events have total transversal energy larger than 200 GeV.

- For sZ→ sW
- In MSSM also the sZ→ sχ
_{1}^{0}+ Z followed by Z→ L^{ }+L^{-}is possible so that trilepton state results. Here sχ_{1}^{0}denotes the lightest neutral sboson and is a mixture of sh, sZ , and sγ. If sh is not in the spectrum, then sγ is an excellent candidate for the lightest neutral gaugino. If the Weinberg angle is SUSY invariant the decay producing three charged leptons in this manner is not possible. - Photinos would decay to photons and neutrinos producing photons and missing energy. It is not clear whether this decay is fast enough to take place in the reactor volume.

To sum up, the trilepton events are possible and would be produced in the decays sZ→ sW+W and sW→ e+sγ . The trilepton events involving selectron as intermediate state do not look highly plausible in TGD framework if one takes seriously the guess for the slepton mass scales.

For details and background see the chapter New particle physics predicted by TGD: part I of "p-Adic Length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy".

## 3 Comments:

Matti,

3 or 4 jets or dimensions?

Why just octaves or half octaves?

Why not some other factor like 1/3 and so on?

Anyway, an octave according to what of the possible scales (spectrum)?

512 + 16 = 528 maybe those strange whole scales have some physics value after all.

Anyway, when I asked about 2^137 I was thinking about such a mixture of levels of p-adic number systems but I did not think to ask to divide it all by half.

All this new particle zoo seems to me a little daunting- not very elegant and parton like- yet if there are three quarks in a proton why not three decay modes as a possible structure- or better a fourth hidden. After all you asked if matter could be 4 dimensional after all and I do think that the first step in understanding higher symmetries.

The PeSla

Mass squared scale comes as octaves. Mass scale as half octaves and length scales by Uncertainty Principle as inverse of these half octaves that is half octaves.

p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes near powers of 2 a favored physically. One could imagine also powers of any prime, say 3. Powers of 2 is a hypothesis which seems to fit the facts. p-Adic mass calculations give also support that Mersenne primes are of special importance.

One can develop also explanations. I list the ones which I remember just now.

a) log(p) is the unit of entropy in p-adic physics and if p is near power of 2, the unit is very near to integer number of bits. In quantum computations Mersenne primes p= 2^n-1 are known to be special. Maximally effective. The evolution quantum jump by quantum jump and driven by Negentropy Maximization Principle would gradually select p-adic length scales with p near power of 2.

b) Period doubling is fundamental phenomenon in transition to chaos and corresponds to time scales coming in powers of 2. p indeed corresponds secondary time scale defining size scale of causal diamond.

c) Prime p=2 is completely exceptional. The smallest prime and the only prime which is even number and we know how handy bits are in information processing. p=2 corresponds to the lowest level in the hierarchy of cognition.

Maybe, there is kind of resonance phenomenon involved. Higher favored primes are such that there is resonance: this is guaranteed if the are as near to powers of 2 as possible. P-Adic worlds satisfying the condition would interact strongly. Mersennes and Fermat primes satisfy this condition but the number of Fermat primes is finite.

You must refer by three or 4 jets to leptons. I talk about trilepton states containing 3 charged leptons but mention also 2-lepton states.

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