Saturday, July 14, 2007

New anomaly in cosmic microwave background

In the comment section of Not-Even-Wrong 'island' gave a link to an article about the observation of a new anomaly in cosmic microwave background. The article Extragalactic Radio Sources and the WMAP Cold Spot by L. Rudnick, S. Brown, and L. R. Williams tells that a cold spot in the microwave background has been discovered. The amplitude of the temperature variation is -73 microK at maximum. The authors argue that the variation can be understood if there is a void at redshift z≤ 1, which corresponds to d≤ 1.4× 1010 ly. The void would have radius of 140 Mpc making 5.2× 108 ly.

In New Scientist, there is a story titled Cosmologists spot a 'knot' in space-time about Neil Turok’s recent talk at PASCOS entitled “Is the Cold Spot in the CMB a Texture?”. Turok has proposed that the cold spot results from a topological defect associated with a cosmic string of GUT type theories.

1. Comparison with sizes and distances of large voids

It is interesting to compare the size and distance of the argued CMB void to those for large voids. The largest known void has size of 163 Mpc making 5.3×108 ly which does not differ significantly from the size 8×6.5×108 ly of CMB void. The distance is 201 Mpc making about 6.5×108 ly and roughly by a factor 1/22 smaller than CMB void.

Is it only an accident that the size of CMB void is same as that for largest large void? If large voids follow the cosmic expansion in a continuous manner, the size of the CMB void should be roughly 1/22 time smaller. Could it be that large voids might follow cosmic expansion by rather seldomly occurring discrete jumps? TGD based quantum astrophysics indeed predicts that expansion occurs in discrete jumps.

2. TGD based quantum model for astrophysical systems

A brief summary of TGD based quantum model of astrophysical systems is in order.

  1. TGD based quantum model for astrophysical systems relies on the evidence that planetary orbits (also those of known exoplanets) correspond to Bohr orbits with a gigantic value of gravitational Planck constant hgr= GMm/v0 characterizing the gravitational interaction between masses M and m. Nottale introduced originally this quantization rule and assigned it to hydrodynamics.

  2. TGD inspired hypothesis is that quantization represents genuine quantum physics and is due to the fact that dark matter matter corresponds to a hierarchy whose levels are labelled by the values of Planck constant. Visible matter bound to dark matter would make this quantization visible. Putting it more precisely, the each or the space-time sheets mediating interactions (electro-weak, color, gravitational) between the two physical systems is characterized by its own Planck constant which can have arbitrarily large values. For gravitational interactions the value of this Planck constant is gigantic.

  3. The implication is that astrophysical systems are analogous to atoms and molecules and thus correspond to quantum mechanical stationary states have constant size in the local M4 coordinates (t,rM,Ω) related to Robertson Walker coordinates via the formulas (a,r,Ω) by (a2= t2-rM2, r= rM/a). This means that their M4 radius RM remains constant whereas the coordinate radius R decreases as 1/a rather than being constant as for comoving matter.

  4. Astrophysical quantum systems can however participate in the cosmic expansion by discrete quantum jumps in which Planck constant increases. This means that the parameter v0 appearing in the gravitational Planck constant hbar= GMm/v0 is reduced in a discrete manner so that the quantum scale of the system increases.

  5. This applies also to gravitational self interactions for which one has hbar= GM2/v0. During the final states of star the phase transitions reduce the value of Planck constant and the prediction is that collapse to neutron or super-nova should occur via phase transitions increasing v0. For blackhole state the value of v0 is maximal and equals to 1/2.

  6. Planetary Bohr orbit model explains the finding by Masreliez that planetary radii seem to decrease when express in terms of the cosmic radial coordinate r =rM/a (see this and this). The prediction is that planetary systems should experience now and then a phase transition in which the size of the system increases by an integer n. The favored values are ruler-and-compass integers expressible as products of distinct Fermat primes (four of them are known) and power of 2. The most favoured changes of v0 are as powers of 2. This would explain why inner and outer planets correspond to the values of v0 differing by a factor of 1/5.

3. The explanation of CMB void

Concerning the explanation of CMB void one can consider two options.

  1. If the large CMB void is similar to the standard large voids it should have emerged much earlier than these or the durations of constant value of v0 could be rather long so that also the nearby large voids should have existed for a very long time with same size.

  2. One can also consider the possibility that CMB void is a fractally scaled up variant of large void. The p-adic length scale of the CMB void would be Lp==L(k), p≈ 2k, k= 263 (prime). If it has participated cosmic expansion in the average sense its recent p-adic size scale would be about 16<22 times larger and p-adic scale would be L(k), k=271 (prime).

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