Europe's INTEGRAL satellite launched in 2002 indeed found bright gamma ray radiations coming from the center of galaxy with energy of .511 MeV, which is slightly above electron mass (see the references below). The official interpretation is that the gammas are produced in the annihilations of particles of positrons and electrons in turn created in dark matter annihilations. TGD suggests much simpler mechanism. Gamma rays would be produced in the decay of what I call electropions having mass which is slightly larger than m=2me.
The news of the day was that the data from Fermi Gamma Ray telescope give analyzed by Dan Hooper and Lisa Goodenough gives evidence for a dark matter candidate with mass between 7.3-9.2 GeV decaying predominantly into a pair of τ leptons. The estimate for the mass region is roughly 4 times τ mass. What puts bells ringing that a mass of a charged lepton appears again!
Explanation in TGD framework
The new finding fits nicely to a bigger story based on TGD.
- TGD predicts that both quarks and leptons should have colored excitations (see the chapter devoted to the leptohadron model). In the case of leptons lowest excitations are color octets. In the case of electro-pion this hypothesis finds support from the anomalous production of electron positron pairs in heavy ion collisions discovered already at seventies but forgotten for long ago since the existence of light particle at this mass scale simply was in total complete with standard model and what was known about the decay widths of intermediate gauge bosons. Also ortopositronium decay width anomaly -forgotten also-has explanation in terms of leptopion hypothesis (see the references below)
- The colored leptons would be dark in TGD sense, which means that they live in dark sector of the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) meaning that they have no direct interactions (common vertices of Feynman diagrams) with ordinary matter. They simply live at different space-time sheets. A phase transition which is geometrically a leakage between dark sector and ordinary sector are possible and make possible interactions between ordinary and dark matter based on exchanged particles suffering this phase transition. Therefore the decay widths of intermediate gauge bosons do not kill the model. TGD based model of dark matter in terms of hierarchy of values of Planck constants coming as multiples of its smallest possible value (the simplest option) need not to be postulated separately and can be regarded as a prediction of quantum TGD reflecting directly the vacuum degenerarcy and extreme non-linearity of Kähler action (Maxwell action for induced CP2 Kähler form).
- CDF anomaly which created a lot of discussion in blogs for two years ago can be understood in terms of taupion. Taupion and its p-adically scaled up versions with masses about 2kmτ, k=1,2,3 and mτ≈ 1.8 GeV explains the findings reported by CDF in TGD framework. The masses of taupions would be 3.6 GeV, 7.2 GeV, and 14.2 GeV in good approximation and come as octaves of the mass of tau-lepton pair.
The mass estimate for the dark matter particle suggests by Fermi Gamma Ray telescope corresponds to k=2 octave for taupion and the predict mass is about 7.2 GeV which at the lower boundary of the range 7.3-9.2 GeV. Also dark matter particles decaying to tau pairs and having masses 3.6 GeV and 14.2 GeV should be found.
Also muo-pion should exist there and should have mass slightly above 2mμ= 210.4 MeV so that a gamma rays peak slightly above the energy μ=105.2 MeV should be discovered. Also octaves of this mass are possible. There is also evidence also for the existence of muopion (around 2007, see the links below).
LHC should provide excellent opportunities to test tau-pion and muo-pion hypothesis. Electro-pion was discovered in heavy ion collisions and also at LHC they study have heavy ion collisions but at much higher energies generating the required very strong non-orthogonal electric and magnetic fields for which the "instanton density" defined as the inner product of electric and magnetic fields is large and rapidly varying. I do not of course consider for a second the possibility that the mighty ones at LHC would take seriously what some ridiculed TGD guy without any academic affiliation suggests. As an optimist I hope that muo-pion and tau-pion could be discovered despite the fact that their decay signatures are very different from those for ordinary particles and despite that fact that at these energies one must know precisely what one is trying to find in order to disentangle it from the enormous background.
Also DAMA, CoGeNT, and PAMELA give indications for tau-pion
Note that also DAMA suggests the existence of dark matter particle in this mass range but it is not clear whether it can have anything to do with tau-pion state. One could of course imagine that dark tau-pions are created in the collisions of highly energetic cosmic rays with the nuclei of atmosphere. Also Coherent Germanium Neutrino Technology (CoGeNT) experiment has released data that are best explained in terms of a dark matter particle with mass in the range 7-11 GeV.
The decay of tau-pions produce lepton pairs, mostly tau but also muons and electrons. The subsequent decays of tau-leptons to muons and electrons produce also electrons and positrons. This relates interestingly to the positron excess reported by PAMELA collaboration at the same time as CDF anomaly was reported (my second birth days gift;-). The anomaly started at positron energy about 3.6 GeV, which is one just one half of 7. 2 GeV for tau-pion mass! What was remarkable that no antiproton excess predicted by standard dark matter candidates was observed. Therefore the interpretation as decay products of tau-pions seems to make sense! A short comment about sociology of science
By the way, CDF anomaly published two years ago meant quite an intensive drama in my life as a lonely dissident. The announcement of CDF about the anomaly happened to come just at the eve of my birth day and I took it as a birth day gift;-). Amusingly, also this news deserves to be called a birthday gift (New Scientists dates the article at October 28 and I will be 60 years old October 30. Note however that the eprint has been added to arXiv October 13). The explanation of the CDF anomaly was of course a great victory for TGD and meant a period of intense work lasting for several months. I had an excellent reason to participate blog discussions and this induced an extremely hostile attacks from the besserwissers of science in Resonaances. Probably also because the first evidence for electropions is from seventies and the neglect of all this data for a period of decades just because it does not conform with standard moded is a scandal. To put it mildly.
Also the powerholders of Finnish theoretical physics decided to give their own birthday gift: I lost sthe right to use the memory of university computer for my homepage which had served as a symbolic support hoped to keep my silent! Small nuisance after all but a nuisance in any case since I had to be quick since the deadline was absolute. The situation today in Finnish theoretical physics has become rather surreal. I am mentioned in the list of fifty world-wide known finnish scientists in Wikipedia among two other living finnish physicists but absolutely no one in the academic environment dares to know about my existence publicly! An excellent opportunity for a gifted writer to create a brilliant satire about the madness of the academic world.
For the details of leptohadron hypothesis see the chapter Recent Status of Leptohadron Hypothesis of "p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy". I have listed below publications related to lepto-pion anomaly.
1. Electropion anomaly
- W. Koenig et al(1987), Zeitschrift fur Physik A, 3288, 1297.
- A.T. Goshaw et al(1979), Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1065.
- P.V. Chliapnikov et al(1984), Phys. Lett. B 141, 276.
- K. Dantzman et al (1989), Phys. Rev. Lett., 62, 2353.
- C. I. Westbrook ,D. W Kidley, R. S. Gidley, R. S Conti and A. Rich (1987), Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 , 1328.
- S. Barshay (1992) , Mod. Phys. Lett. A, Vol 7, No 20, p. 1843.
- J.Schweppe et al.(1983), Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2261.
- H.Tsertos et al. (1985) , Phys. Lett. 162B, 273, H.Tsertos et al.(1987) , Z. Phys. A 326, 235.
- P. Salabura et al (1990), Phys. Lett. B 245, 2, 153.
- A. Chodos (1987) , Comments Nucl. Part. Phys., Vol 17, No 4, pp. 211, 223.
- L. Kraus and M. Zeller (1986), Phys. Rev. D 34, 3385.
- M. Clemente et al. (1984), Phys. Rev. Lett. 137B, 41.
- S. Judge et al (1990) , Phys.Rev. Lett., 65(8), 972.
- T. Cowan et al.(1985), Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1761 and T. Cowan et al.(1986), Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 444.
2. Electro-pions as a candidate for dark matter in galactic center
- G. Weidenspointner et al (2006), The sky distribution of positronium annihilation continuum emission measured with SPI/INTEGRAL, Astron. Astrophys. 450, 1013, astro-ph/0601673.
- E. Churazov, R. Sunyaev, S. Sazonov, M. Revnivtsev, and D. Varshalovich, Positron annihilation spectrum from the Galactic Center region observed by SPI/INTEGRAL, Mon. Not. Roy. 17. Astron. Soc. 357, 1377 (2005), astro-ph/0411351.
3. Ortopositronium anomaly
R. Escribabno,E. Masso, R. Toldra (1995), Phys. Lett. B. 356, 313-318.
4. Muopion anomaly
- X.-G. He, J. Tandean, G. Valencia (2007), Has HyperCP Observed a Light Higgs Boson?,Phys. Rev. D74. http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0610274 .
- X.-G. He, J. Tandean, G. Valencia (2007), Light Higgs Production in Hyperon Decay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98. http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0610362.
5. Taupion anomaly
- CDF: T. Daniels et al (1994), Fermilab-Conf-94/136-E; Fermilab-Conf-94/212-E.
- CDF Collaboration (2008), Study of multi-muon events produced in p-pbar collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0810/0810.0714v1.pdf.
- T. Dorigo (2008), Some notes on the multi-muon analysis - part I. http://dorigo.wordpress.com/2008/11/08/some-notes-on-the-multi-muon-analysis-part-i/.
6. Taupions as a candidate for dark matter in galactic center
D. Hooper and L. Goodenough (2010), Dark Matter Annihilation in The Galactic Center As Seen by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. http://arxiv.org/pdf/1010.2752v1.
DAMA collaboration (2010), Results from DAMA/LIBRA at Gran Sasso, Found. Phys. 40, p. 900. http://people.roma2.infn.it/~dama/web/publ10.html.
CoGENT collaboration (2010), Results from a Search for Light-Mass Dark Matter with a P-type Point Contact Germanium Detector. http://arxiv.org/abs/1002.4703. PAMELA Collaboration (2008), Observation of an anomalous positron abundance in the cosmic radiation. http://arxiv.org/abs/1002.4703. M. Boexio (2008), talk represented at IDM 2008, Stockholm, Sweden.