One important example is the description of non-perturbative aspects of strong interactions in terms of reconnection of color magnetic flux quanta carrying magnetic monopole fluxes. These objects are string like structures and one can indeed assign to them string world sheets. The transitions in which the thickness of flux tube increases so that flux conservation implies that part of magnetic energy is liberated unless the length of the flux quantum increases, are central in TGD inspired cosmology and astrophysics. The magnetic energy of flux quantum is interpreted as dark energy and magnetic tension as negative "pressure" causing accelerated expansion.

This picture is beautiful and extremely general but raises challenges. How to describe interference and linear superposition for classical gauge fields in terms of topologically quantized classical fields? How the interference and superposition of Maxwellian magnetic fields is realized in the situation when magnetic fields decompose to flux quanta? How to describe simple systems such as solenoidal current generating constant magnetic field using the language of flux quanta?

**Superposition of fields in terms of flux quanta**

The basic question concerns the elegant description of superposition of classical fields in terms of topological field quanta. What it means that magnetic fields superpose.

- In Maxwell's linear theory the answer would be trivial but not now. Linear superposition holds true only inside topological light rays for signals propagating in fixed direction with light velocity and with same local polarization. The easy solution would be to say that one considers small perturbations of background space-time sheet and linearizes the theory. Linearization would apply also to induced gauge fields and metric and one would obtain linear superposition approximately. This does not look elegant. Rather, quantum classical correspondence requires the space-time counterpart for the expansion of quantum fields as sum of modes in terms of topological field quanta. Topological field quanta should not lose their identity in the superposition.
- In the spirit of topological field quantization it would be nice to have topological representation for the superposition and interference without any linearization. To make progress one must return to the roots and ask how the fields are operationally defined. One has test particle and it experiences a gauge force in the field. From the acceleration of the test particle the value of field is deduced. What one observes is the superposition of gauge forces, not of gauge fields.
- Let us just assume that we have two space-time sheets representing field configurations to be effectively superposed. Suppose that they are "on top" of each other with respect to CP
_{2}degrees of freedom so that their M^{4}volumes overlap. The points of the sheets representing the field values that would sum in Maxwell's theory are typically at distance of CP_{2}radius of about 10^{4}Planck lengths. Wormhole contacts representing he interaction between the field configurations are formed. Hence the analog of linear superposition does not hold true exactly. For instance, amplitude modulation becomes possible. This is however not essential for the argment. - Test particle could be taken to be fermion which is simultaneously topologically condensed to both sheets. In other words, fermionic CP
_{2}type almost vacuum extremal touches both sheets and wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced metric changes is formed. Fermion experiences the sum of gauge forces from the two space-time sheets through its wormhole throats. From this one usually concludes that superposition holds true for the induced gauge fields. This assumption is however not true and is also un-necessary in the recent case. In case of topological light rays the representation of modes in given direction in terms of massless extremals makes possible to realize the analogy for the representation of quantum field as sum of modes. The representation does not depend on approximate linearity as in the case of quantum field theories and therefore removes a lot of fuzziness related to the quantum theory. In TGD framework the bosonic action is indeed extremely non-linear.

- Let us just assume that we have two space-time sheets representing field configurations to be effectively superposed. Suppose that they are "on top" of each other with respect to CP
- This view about linear superposition has interesting implications. In effective superposition the superposed field patterns do not lose their identity which means that the information about the sources is not lost - this is true at least mathematically. This is nothing but quantum classical correspondence: it is the decomposition of radiation into quanta which allows to conclude that the radiation arrives from a particular astrophysical object. It is also possible to have superposition of fields to zero field in Maxwellian sense but in the sense of TGD both fields patterns still exist. Linear superposition in TGD sense might allow testing using time dependent magnetic fields. In the critical situation in which the magnetic field created by AC current passes through zero, flux quanta have macroscopic size and the direction of the flux quantum changes to opposite.

**Time varying magnetic fields described in terms of flux quanta**

An interesting challenge to describe time dependent fields in terms of topological field quanta which are in many respects static structures (for instance, flux is constant). The magnetic fields created by time dependent currents serves as a good example from which one can generalize. In the simplest situation the magnetic field strength experiences time dependent scaling. How to describe this scaling?

Consider first the scaling of the magnetic field strength in flux tube quantization.

- Intuitively it seems clear that the field decomposes into flux quanta, whose M
^{4}projections can partially overlap. To get a connection to Maxwell's theory one can assume that the average field intensity is defined in terms of the flux of the magnetic field over a surface with area S. For simplicity consider constant magnetic field so tht one has B_{ave}S= Φ= nΦ_{0}, where Φ_{0}is the quantized flux for a flux tube assumed to have minimum value Φ_{0}. Integer n is proportional to the average magnetic field B_{ave}. B_{ave}must be reasonably near to the typical local value of the magnetic field which manifest itself quantum mechanically as cyclotron frequency. - What happens in the scaling B→ B/x. If the transversal area of flux quantum is scaled up by x the flux quantum is conserved. To get the total flux correctly, the number of flux quanta must scale down: n → n/x. One indeed has (n/x)× xS= nS. This implies that the total area associated with flux quanta within total area S is preserved in the scaling.
- The condition that the flux is exact integer multiple of Φ
_{0}would pose additional conditions leading to the quantization of magnetic flux if the total area can be regarded as fixed. This need not to be true.

Consider as the first example slowly varying magnetic field created by an alternating running in current in cylindrical solenoid. There are flux tubes inside the cylindrical solenoid and return flux tubes outside it flowing in opposite direction. Flux tubes get thicker as magnetic field weakens and shift from the interior of solenoid outside. For some value x of the time dependent scaling B→ B/x the elementary flux quantum Φ_{0} reaches the radius of the solenoid. Quantum effects must become important and make possible the change of the sign of the elementary flux quantum. Perhaps quantum jump turning the flux quantum around takes place. After this the size of the flux quantum begins to decrease as the magnitude of the magnetic field increases. At the maximum value the size of the flux quantum is minimum.

This example generalizes to the magnetic field created by a linear alternating current. In this case flux quanta are cylinderical flux sheets for which magnetic field strength and thickness oscillators with time. Also in this case the maximum transversal area to the system defines a critical situation in which there is just single flux sheet in the system carrying elementary flux. This flux quantum changes its sign as the sign of the current changes.

For background see the chapter General View About Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time : Part I.

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