Concerning U, there is certainly no actual Schrödinger equation involved: situation is in practice same also in quantum field theories. It is now clear that in Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) U can be actually identified as a sequence of basic steps such that single step involves a unitary evolution inducing delocalization in the moduli space of causal diamonds CDs) followed by a localization in this moduli space selecting from a superposition of CDs single CD. This sequence replaces a sequence of repeated state function reductions leaving state invariant in ordinary QM. Now it leaves in variant second boundary of CD (to be called passive boundary) and also the parts of zero energy states at this boundary. There is now a very attractive vision about the construction of transition amplitudes for a given CD, and it remains to be see whether it allows an extension so that also transitions involving change of the CD moduli characterizing the non-fixed boundary of CD.
A dynamical principle governing subjective time evolution should exist and explain state function reduction with the characteristic one-one correlation between macroscopic measurement variables and quantum degrees of freedom and state preparation process. Negentropy Maximization Principle is the candidate for this principle. In its recent form it brings in only a single little but overall important modification: state function reductions occurs also now to an eigen-space of projector but the projector can now have dimension which is larger than one. Self has free will to choose beides the maximal possible dimension for this sub-space also lower dimension so that one can speak of weak form of NMP so that negentropy gain can be also below the maximal possible: we do not live in the best possible world. Second important ingredient is the notion of negentropic entanglement relying on p-adic norm.
The evolution of ideas related to NMP has been slow and tortuous process characterized by misinterpretations, over-generalizations, and unnecessarily strong assumptions, and has been basically evolution of ideas related to the anatomy of quantum jump and of quantum TGD itself.
Quantum measurement theory is generalized to theory of consciousness in TGD framework by replacing the notion of observer as outsider of the physical world with the notion of self. Hence it is not surprising that several new key notions are involved.
- ZEO is in central role and brings in a completely new element: the arrow of time changes in the counterpart of standard quantum jump involving the change of the passive boundary of CD to active and vice versa. In living matter the changes of the of time are inn central role: for instance, motor action as volitional action involves it at some level of self hierarchy.
- The fusion of real physics and various p-adic physics identified as physics of cognition to single adelic physics is second key element. The notion of intersection of real and p-adic worlds (intersection of sensory and cognitive worlds) is central and corresponds in recent view about TGD to string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces whose parameters are in an algebraic extension of rationals. By strong form of of holography it is possible to continue the string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces to various real and p-adic surfaces so that what can be said about quantum physics is coded by them. The physics in algebraic extension can be continued to real and various p-adic sectors by algebraic continuation meaning continuation of various parameters appearing in the amplitudes to reals and various p-adics.
An entire hierarchy of physics labeled by the extensions of rationals inducing also those of p-adic numbers is predicted and evolution corresponds to the increase of the complexity of these extensions. Fermions defining correlates of Boolean cognition can be said so reside at these 2-dimensional surfaces emerging from strong form of holography implied by strong form of general coordinate invariance (GCI).
An important outcome of adelic physics is the notion of number theoretic entanglement entropy: in the defining formula for Shannon entropy logarithm of probability is replaced with that of p-adic norm of probability and one assumes that the p-adic prime is that which produces minimum entropy. What is new that the minimum entropy is negative and one can speak of negentropic entanglement (NE). Consistency with standard measurement theory allows only NE for which density matrix is n-dimensional projector.
- Strong form of NMP states that state function reduction corresponds to maximal negentropy gain. NE is stable under strong NMP and it even favors its generation. Strong form of NMP would mean that we live in the best possible world, which does not seem to be the case. The weak form of NMP allows self to choose whether it performs state function reduction yielding the maximum possible negentropy gain. If n-dimensional projector corresponds to the maximal negentropy gain, also reductions to sub-spaces with n-k-dimensional projectors down to 1-dimensional projector are possible. Weak form has powerful implications: for instance, one can understand how primes near powers of prime are selected in evolution identified at basic level as increase of the complexity of algebraic extension of rationals defining the intersection of realities and p-adicities.
- NMP gives rise to evolution. NE defines information resources, which I have called Akashic records - kind of Universal library. The simplest possibility is that under the repeated sequence of state function reductions at fixed boundary of CD NE at that boundary becomes conscious and gives rise to experiences with positive emotional coloring: experience of love, compassion, understanding, etc... One cannot exclude the possibility that NE generates a conscious experience only via the analog of interaction free measurement but this option looks un-necessary in the recent formulation.
- Dark matter hierarchy labelled by the values of Planck constant heff=n× h is also in central role and interpreted as a hierarchy of criticalities in which sub-algebra of super-symplectic algebra having structure of conformal algebra allows sub-algebra acting as gauge conformal algebra and having conformal weights coming as n-ples of those for the entire algebra. The phase transition increasing heff reduces criticality and takes place spontaneously. This implies a spontaneous generation of macroscopic quantum phases interpreted in terms of dark matter. The hierarchies of conformal symmetry breakings with n(i) dividing n(i+1) define sequences of inclusions of HFFs and the conformal sub-algebra acting as gauge algebra could be interpreted in terms of measurement resolution.
n-dimensional NE is assigned with heff=n× h and is interpreted in terms of the n-fold degeneracy of the conformal gauge equivalence classes of space-time surfaces connecting two fixed 3-surfaces at the opposite boundaries of CD: this reflects the non-determinism accompanying quantum criticality. NE would be between two dark matter system with same heff and could be assigned to the pairs formed by the n sheets. This identification is important but not well enough understood yet. The assumption that p-adic primes p divide n gives deep connections between the notion of preferred p-adic prime, negentropic entanglement, hierarchy of Planck constants, and hyper-finite factors of type II1.
- Quantum classical correspondence (QCC) is an important constraint in ordinary measurement theory. In TGD QCC is coded by the strong form of holography assigning to the quantum states assigned to the string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces represented in terms of super-symplectic Yangian algebra space-time surfaces as preferred extremals of Kähler action, which by quantum criticality have vanishing super-symplectic Noether charges in the sub-algebra characterized by integer n. Zero modes, which by definition do not contribute to the metric of "world of classical worlds" (WCW) code for non-fluctuacting classical degrees of freedom correlating with the quantal ones. One can speak about entanglement between quantum and classical degrees of freedom since the quantum numbers of fermions make themselves visible in the boundary conditions for string world sheets and their also in the structure of space-time surfaces.
- In particular, one must give up the standard view about second law and replace it with NMP taking into account the hierarchy of CDs assigned with ZEO and dark matter hierarchy labelled by the values of Planck constants, as well as the effects due to NE. The breaking of second law in standard sense is expected to take place and be crucial for the understanding of evolution.
- Self hierarchy having the hierarchy of CDs as imbedding space correlate leads naturally to a description of the contents of consciousness analogous to thermodynamics except that the entropy is replaced with negentropy.
- In the case of living matter NMP allows to understand the origin of metabolism. NMP demands that self generates somehow negentropy: otherwise a state function reduction to tjhe opposite boundary of CD takes place and means death and re-incarnation of self. Metabolism as gathering of nutrients, which by definition carry NE is the manner to avoid this fate. This leads to a vision about the role of NE in the generation of sensory qualia and a connection with metabolism. Metabolites would carry NE and each metabolite would correspond to a particular qualia (not only energy but also other quantum numbers would correspond to metabolites). That primary qualia would be associated with nutrient flow is not actually surprising!
- NE leads to a vision about cognition. Negentropically entangled state consisting of a superposition of pairs can be interpreted as a conscious abstraction or rule: negentropically entangled Schrödinger cat knows that it is better to keep the bottle closed.
- NMP implies continual generation of NE. One might refer to this ever expanding universal library as "Akaschic records". NE could be experienced directly during the repeated state function reductions to the passive boundary of CD - that is during the life cycle of sub-self defining the mental image. Another, less feasible option is that interaction free measurement is required to assign to NE conscious experience. As mentioned, qualia characterizing the metabolite carrying the NE could characterize this conscious experience.
- A connection with fuzzy qubits and quantum groups with NE is highly suggestive. The implications are highly non-trivial also for quantum computation allowed by weak form of NMP since NE is by definition stable and lasts the lifetime of self in question.
For a summary of the earlier postings see Links to the latest progress in TGD.