In the current study (see this, Pavel Kroupa’s doctoral student, Moritz Haslbauer, led an international research group to investigate the evolution of the universe using the latest supercomputer simulations. The calculations are based on the Standard Model of Cosmology; they show which galaxies should have formed by today if this theory were correct. The researchers then compared their results with what is currently probably the most accurate observational data of the real Universe visible from Earth.
It is found that the fraction of disk galaxies is much larger than predicted. This suggests that the morphology of disk galaxies is very slowly changing and mergers of galaxies, favoured by dark matter halos, are not so important as though in the dynamics of galaxies. The cold dark matter scenario predicts spherical halos, which does not fit well with the large fraction of disk galaxies. The MOND approach is favored because there are no dark matter halos favoring spherical galaxies and mergers.
In the TGD framework (see this, this, and this), dark matter or rather, dark energy would be associated with what I call cosmic strings so that halos are absent. Cosmic strings are extremely massive and create a 1/ρ transversal gravitational field, which explains the flat velocity spectrum of distant stars automatically.
The orbits of stars are helical since there is free motion in the direction of a long string. This strongly favors the formation of disk galaxies with the plane of the disk orthogonal to the string and correlation between the normals of the disks along the long cosmic string. In accordance with the findings, the concentration of matter at the galactic plane is very natural in the TGD framework.
The intersections of the string-like objects moving at 3-surface are topologically unavoidable and one can ask whether the galaxies are formed as two cosmic string intersect and the resulting perturbation induces their thickening leading to the transformation of the dark energy of the cosmic string to ordinary matter. This would be an analogy for the decay of an inflaton field to ordinary matter.
See the article More anomalies related to the standard model of galaxy formation.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.