Friday, April 28, 2023

Is the 60 years old problem related to the formation of quasars solved?

The following considerations were motivated by a Sciencedaily article telling about a possible solution of 60 year old problem related to the huge intensity of radiation arriving from quasars (see this). The article tells about the article "Galaxy interactions are the dominant trigger for local type 2 quasars" of Pierce et al published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (see this).

The proposed explanation of quasars is in terms of the collision of galaxies in which matter, which usually stays at circular orbits, falls into the galactic blackhole-like objects (BHOs) having huge gravitational fields, which as a consequence emits a huge burst of radiation in this process.

  1. The key problem of this view is that the radii of the orbits of stars are measured in kiloparsecs: somehow the matter should get to a distance of order parsecs. This requires that the orbiting matter gets rid of the conserved angular momentum somehow. The proposal is that the collision of galaxies generates tidal forces making this possible.
  2. Another facet of the problem is that life-time of quasars is measured in mega years whereas the time scale of galactic dynamics is gigayears- thousand times longer. This does not make the explanation of quasars in terms of galactic dynamics an easy task. My impression from the article was that this is one possibility and they support this option but certainly do not prove it.
  3. The researchers claim that the finding could be understood if the colliding objects are blackhole-like objects (BHOs). Tidal forces in collisions would make it possible for them to draw matter from their surroundings and this process would generate huge radiation power. They do not do this usually but only because angular momentum barrier prevents the fall of the matter to black-hole. The collision would however create circumstances causing the ordinary matter at their circular orbits to fall to the BHO(s). I am not specialist enough to decide how convincing the calculations of the researchers are.
Consider now a possible TGD based model of quasars involving new physics predicted by TGD.
  1. In TGD, galactic blackhole-like objects (BHOs) could be associated with cosmic string-like objects, which thicken to monopole flux tubes by phase transitions. The phase transition is analogous to the decay of an inflaton field producing ordinary matter. In this process dark energy would transform the energy of the cosmic string to dark matter assignable to BHOs. This would also explain the quite recent finding that dark energy seems to transform to galactic BHOs.

    Part of the dark matter of BHO would transform to ordinary galactic matter in a transition reducing gravitational Planck constant and liberating energy as an explosion. This would be the source of enormous radiation energy.

  2. This explosive process would involve new the transformation of dark matter to ordinary matter in a phase transition reducing the value of gravitational Planck constant ℏgr= GMm/β0, where M and m are large mass (say that of galactic blackhole) and small mass (say proton mass) and β0≤ 1 is velocity parameter.

    This phase transition could be also behind the formation of both stars and planets in explosions producing magnetic bubbles, and would replace the standard model assuming only gravitational condensation. Quasars could be similar expolosions perhaps preducing BHOs. For the TGD based model for the formation of astrophysical objects, see this and this .

  3. The conservative assumption is that quasars a BHOS are analogues of ordinary blackholes (TGD also allows time reversals of BHOs analogous to white hole-like objects (WHOs)). The formation of a quasar would be analogous to inflaton decay transforming dark energy to dark matter and in turn to ordinary galactic matter in ℏgr →ℏ phase transition . The radiation would be produced in the transformation of dark matter to ordinary matter proposed to also produce other astrophysical objects.
  4. The collision of galaxies could have triggered the intersection of associated cosmic strings approximately orthogonal to the galactic planes. The intersection would have induced a formation of dark BHO and its explosion. The distant ordinary matter circulating the galaxies would have nothing to do with the formation of quasars.

    These kinds of collisions are unavoidable for moving string-like objects in 3-D space for simple, purely topological reasons. As a matter of fact, there is evidence that also the Milky Way center involves 2 cosmic strings, which have collided. The structure MW would reflect the ancient occurrence of an analogue of inflaton decay.

For the TGD view of the formation of astrophysical objects see this and this .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

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