The structure of the Yangian algebra is quite intricate and in order to minimize confusion easily caused by my own restricted mathematical skills it is best to try to build a physical interpretation for what Yangian really is and leave the details for the mathematicians.

- The first thing to notice is that Yangian and quantum affine algebra are two different quantum deformations of a given Lie algebra. Both rely on the notion of R-matrix inducing a swap of braid strands. R-matrix represents the projective representations of the permutation group for braid strands and possible in 2-dimensional case due to the non-commutativity of the first homotopy group for 2-dimensional spaces with punctures. The R-matrix R
_{q}(u,v) depends on complex parameter q and two complex coordinates u,v. In integrable quantum field theories in M^{2}the coordinates u,v are real numbers having identification as exponentials representing Lorenz boosts. In 2-D integrable conformal field theory the coordinates u,v have interpretation as complex phases representing points of a circle. The assumption that the coordinate parameters are complex numbers is the safest one. - For Yangian the R-matrix is rational whereas for quantum affine algebra it is trigonometric. For the Yangian of a linear group quantum deformation parameter can be taken to be equal to one by a suitable rescaling of the generators labelled by integer by a power of the complex quantum deformation parameter q. I do not know whether this true in the general case. For the quantum affine algebra this is not possible and in TGD framework the most interesting values of the deformation parameter correspond to roots of unity.

**Slicing of space-time sheets to partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets**

The proposals is t the preferred extremals of Kähler action are involved in an essential manner the slicing of the space-time sheets by partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets. Also an analogous slicing of Minkowski space is assumed and there are infinite number of this kind of slicings defining what I have called Hamilton-Jaboci coordinates (see this). What is really involved is far from clear. For instance, I do not really understand whether the slicings of the space-time surfaces are purely dynamical or induced by special coordinatizations of the space-time sheets using projections to special kind of sub-manifolds of the imbedding space, or are these two type of slicings equivalent by the very property of being a preferred extremal. Therefore I can represent only what I think I understand about the situation.

- What is needed is the slicing of space-time sheets by partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets. The existence of this slicing is assumed for the preferred extremals of Kähler action (see this). Physically the slicing corresponds to an integrable decomposition of the tangent space of space-time surface to 2-D space representing non-physical polarizations and 2-D space representing physical polarizations and has also number theoretical meaning.
- In zero energy ontology the complex coordinate parameters appearing in the generalized conformal fields should correspond to coordinates of the imbedding space serving also as local coordinates of the space-time surface. Problems seem to be caused by the fact that for string world sheets hyper-complex coordinate is more natural than complex coordinate. Pair of hyper-complex and complex coordinate emerge naturally as Hamilton-Jacobi coordinates for Minkowski space encountered in the attempts to understand the construction of the preferred extremals of Kähler action.
Also the condition that the flow lines of conserved isometry currents define global coordinates lead to the to the analog of Hamilton-Jacobi coordinates for space-time sheets (see this). The physical interpretation is in terms of local polarization plane and momentum plane defined by local light-like direction. What is so nice that these coordinates are highly unique and determined dynamically.

- Is it really necessary to use two complex coordinates in the definition of Yangian-affine conformal fields? Why not to use hyper-complex coordinate for string world sheets? Since the inverse of hyper-complex number does not exist when the hyper-complex number is light-like, hyper-complex coordinate should appear in the expansions for the Yangian generalization of conformal field as positive powers only. Intriguingly, the Yangian algebra is "one half" of the affine algebra so that only positive powers appear in the expansion. Maybe the hyper-complex expansion works and forces Yangian-affine instead of doubly affine structure. The appearance of only positive conformal weights in Yangian sector could also relate to the fact that also in conformal theories this restriction must be made.
- It seems indeed essential that the space-time coordinates used can be regarded as imbedding space coordinates which can be fixed to a high degree by symmetries: otherwise problems with general coordinate invariance and with number theoretical universality would be encountered.
- The slicing by partonic 2-surfaces could (but need not) be induced by the slicing of CD by parallel translates of either upper or lower boundary of CD in time direction in the rest frame of CD (time coordinate varying in the direction of the line connecting the tips of CD). These slicings are not global. Upper and lower boundaries of CD would definitely define analogs of different coordinate patches.

**Physical interpretation of the Yangian of quantum affine algebra**

What the Yangian of quantum affine algebra or more generally, its super counterpart could mean in TGD framework? The key idea is that this algebra would define a generalization of super conformal algebras of super conformal field theories as well as the generalization of super Virasoro algebra. Optimist could hope that the constructions associated with conformal algebras generalize: this includes the representation theory of super conformal and super Virasoro algebras, coset construction, and vertex operator construction in terms of free fields. One could also hope that the classification of extended conformal theories defined in this manner might be possible.

- The Yangian of a quantum affine algebra is in question. The heuristic idea is that the two R-matrices - trigonometric and rational - are assignable to the swaps defined by space-like braidings associated with the braids at 3-D space-like ends of space-time sheets at light-like boundaries of CD and time like braidings associated with the braids at 3-D light-like surfaces connecting partonic 2-surfaces at opposite light-like boundaries of CD. Electric-magnetic duality and S-duality implied by the strong form of General Coordinate Invariance should be closely related to the presence of two R-matrices. The first guess is that rational R-matrix is assignable with the time-like braidings and trigonometric R-matrix with the space-like braidings. Here one must or course be very cautious.
- The representation of the collection of Galois groups associated with infinite primes in terms of braided symplectic flows for braid of braids of .... braids implies that there is a hierarchy of swaps: swaps can also exchange braids of ...braids. This would suggest that at the lowest level of the braiding hierarchy the R-matrix associated with a Kac-Moody algebra permutes two braid strands which decompose to braids. There would be two different braided variants of Galois groups.
- The Yangian of the affine Kac-Moody algebra could be seen as a 4-D generalization of the 2-D Kac-Moody algebra- that is a local algebra having representation as a power series of complex coordinates defined by the projections of the point of the space-time sheet to geodesic spheres of light-cone boundary and geodesic sphere of CP
_{2}. - For the Yangian the generators would correspond to polynomials of the complex coordinate of string world sheet and for quantum affine algebra to Laurent series for the complex coordinate of partonic 2-surface. What the restriction to polynomials means is not quite clear. Witten sees Yangian as one half of Kac-Moody algebra containing only the generators having n≥ 0. This might mean that the positivity of conformal weight for physical states essential for the construction of the representations of Virasoro algebra would be replaced with automatic positivity of the conformal weight assignable to the Yangian coordinate.
- Also Virasoro algebra should be replaced with the Yangian of Virasoro algebra or its quantum counterpart. This construction should generalize also to Super Virasoro algebra. A generalization of conformal field theory to a theory defined at 4-D space-time surfaces using two preferred complex coordinates made possible by surface property is highly suggestive. The generalization of conformal field theory in question would have two complex coordinates and conformal invariance associated with both of them. This would therefore reduce the situation to effectively 2-dimensional one rather than 3-dimensional: this would be nothing but the effective 2-dimensionality of quantum TGD implied by the strong form of General Coordinate Invariance.
- This picture conforms with what the generalization of D=4
*N*=4 SYM by replacing point like particles with partonic 2-surfaces would suggest: Yangian is replaced with Yangian of quantum affine algebra rather than quantum group. Note that it is the finite measurement resolution alone which brings in the quantum parameters q_{1}and q_{2}. The finite measurement resolution might be relevant for the elimination of IR divergences.

**How to construct the Yangian of quantum affine algebra?**

The next step is to try to understand the construction of the Yangian of quantum affine algebra.

- One starts with a given Lie group G. It could be the group of isometries of the imbedding space or subgroup of it or even the symplectic group of the light-like boundary of CD× CP
_{2}and thus infinite-dimensional. It could be also the Lie group defining finite measurement resolution with the dimension of Cartan algebra determined by the number of braid strands. - The next step is to construct the affine algebra (Kac-Moody type algebra with central extension). For the group defining the measurement resolution the scalar fields assigned with the ends of braid strands could define the Cartan algebra of Kac-Moody type algebra of this group. The ordered exponentials of these generators would define the charged generators of the affine algebra.
For the imbedding space isometries and symplectic transformations the algebra would be obtained by localizing with respect to the internal coordinates of the partonic 2-surface. Note that also a localization with respect to the light-like coordinate of light-cone boundary or light-like orbit of partonic 2-surface is possible and is strongly suggested by the effective 2-dimensionality of light-like 3-surfaces allowing extension of conformal algebra by the dependence on second real coordinate. This second coordinate should obviously correspond to the restriction of second complex coordinate to light-like 3-surface. If the space-time sheets allow slicing by partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets this localization is possible for all 2-D partonic slices of space-time surface.

- The next step is quantum deformation to quantum affine algebra with trigonometric R-matrix R
_{q1}(u,v) associated with space-like braidings along space-like 3-surfaces along the ends of CD. u and v could correspond to the values of a preferred complex coordinate of the geodesic sphere of light-cone boundary defined by rotational symmetry. It choice would fix a preferred quantization axes for spin. - The last step is the construction of Yangian using rational R-matrix R
_{q2}(u,v). In this case the braiding is along the light-like orbit between ends of CD. u and v would correspond to the complex coordinates of the geodesic sphere of CP_{2}. Now the preferred complex coordinate would fix the quantization axis of color isospin.

These arguments are of course heuristic and do not satisfy any criteria of mathematical rigor and the details could of course change under closer scrutinity. The whole point is in the attempt to understand the situation physically in all its generality. The most important outcome is the conjecture that the incredibly powerful mathematical apparatus of 2-dimensional conformal field theories might have a generalization to four-dimensional context based on Yangians of quantum affined algebras. This might explain the miracles of both twistor approach and string approach.

**How 4-D generalization of conformal invariance relates to strong form of general coordinate invariance?**

The basic objections that one can rise to the extension of conformal field theory to 4-D context come from the successes of p-adic mass calculations. p-Adic thermodynamics relies heavily on the properties of partition functions for super-conformal representations. What happens when one replaces affine algebra with (quantum) Yangian of affine algebra? Ordinary Yangian involves the original algebra and its dual and from these higher multilocal generators are constructed. In the recent case the obvious interpretation for this would be that one has Kac-Moody type algebra with expansion with respect to complex coordinate w for partonic 2-surfaces and its dual algebra with expansion with respect to hyper-complex coordinate of string world sheet.

p-Adic mass calculations suggest that the use of either algebra is enough to construct single particle states. Or more precisely, local generators are enough. I have indeed proposed that the multilocal generators are relevant for the construction of bound states. Also the strong form of general coordinate invariance implying strong form of holography, effective 2-dimensionality, electric-magnetic duality and S-duality suggest the same. If one could construct the states representing elementary particles solely in terms of either algebra, there would be no danger that the results of p-adic mass calculations are lost. Note that also the necessity to restrict the conformal weights of conformal representations to be non-negative would have nice interpretation in terms of the duality.

For details and background the reader can consult either to the chapter Physics as Generalized Number Theory: Infinite Primes of "Physics as Generalized Number Theory", to the chapter Yangian Symmetry, Twistors, and TGD of "Towards M-matrix" or to the article Langlands conjectures in TGD framework.

## 5 comments:

I just found something surprising: Type IIB string theory on AdS5 x S5, which is the Maldacena dual of N=4 Yang-Mills, is itself T-dual to Type IIA string theory on AdS5 x CP2 x S1, or equivalently M-theory on AdS5 x CP2 x T2. I was always curious about the possibility that TGD closely resembles some M-theory background, and this last background space seems very close to M4 x CP2: you just have M4 becoming AdS5, with four-dimensional energy scale turning into the AdS dimension in the familiar way, and then an extra factor of T2.

It might even be that the 3-surfaces of TGD could be related to M5-branes of M-theory on this background, compactified on the T^2.

You are right. Concerning standard model quantum numbers M^4 and CP_2 are necessary and these appear among other this in AdS5xCP2xT2. Torus however gives additional quantum numbers.

One can of course argue that the imbedding space in TGD is something quite different from target space in M-theory. These target spaces can emerge as effective imbedding spaces from free field representations of Kac-Moody algebras.

As a fact, in TGD this kind of representations seem to emerge in TGD as correlate for finite measurement resolution. The number of braid strands of braid effectively replacing partonic 2 surface defines the dimension of Cartan algebra for Lie algebra defining Kac-Moody algebra. This dimension in turn would characterize the number of transversal degrees of freedom for target space and would have nothing to do with real imbedding space dimension. One might argue that the dimension 10, 11,12 of superstrings, M-theory, F-theory,…is this kind of effective dimension and the interpretation has totally misled theoreticians to spend rest of their life in the muds of M-theory landscape;-).

At least all simply laced Lie groups can appear as dynamical gauge/Kac Moody groups with confinement characterizing measurement resolution described in terms of inclusion of hyper-finite factors and I have the impression that free field representations are much more general: the articles of Ed Frenkel about this are however too technical for me and I am also lazy.

One might say that finite measurement resolution makes it possible to simulate theories with at least simply laced Lie groups. TGD Universe would be analog of Turing machine. See the end of this.

To be continued…..

Continuation to previous response…..

The dimension 10 pop up often in TGD inspired numerology. Also the role of octonions in TGD suggests a connection of some kind. Octonionic projective space has SO(1,9) as its symmetries as John Baez has shown (SO(1,9) is analogous to Mobius SO(1,3) acting in complex plane). He believes that there is a deep connection between string models and octonions.

In TGD space-time surfaces are conjectured to be quaternionic surfaces of 8-D imbedding space with octonionic structure in tangent space (for gamma matrices in octonionic representation). Quite recently I realized that the old dream about much more concrete meaning for quaternionicity could be equivalent with this picture.

The question is whether preferred extremals of Kaehler action could be expressed as octonion real-analytic in preferred octonionic coordinates for Euclidian version of M^4xCP_2. One would map M^4xCP_2 tp E^4xCP_2 by Wick rotation, perform the octonion real-analytic map f, identify space-time sheet as the quaternionic space-time surface defined by the condition of the "imaginary" part of f(o), and return back by Wick rotation.

This map from Minkowskian strings to Euclidian strings is made routinely in string theory. The octonionic Wicki rotation could be also understood in terms of complexification of octonions.

For details see this.

To be continued…..

Continuation of previous response….

Still a couple of observations relating to M-theory-TGD connection.

G_2 symmetry as automorphisms of octonions is also essential for quaternionic spinor structure and also for the proposed solution ansatz. I think that G_2 plays key role in M-theory compactifications as symmetries of 7-D compact space.

Finally a comment concerning 5-branes whose orbits are 6-branes. Twistorial approach suggests an alternative view to see TGD. Space-time surfaces would in this picture correspond to 6-D surfaces which are sphere bundles in CP_3xCP_3. The first CP_3 would correspond to twistors. Second would relate to CP_2. Does this mean some connection with F-theory.

The essential difference to M-theory is that in TGD space-time regions can have both Minkowskian and Euclidian signatures and light-like 3-surfaces representing particles correspond to 3-surfaces at which the signature changes so that also induced 4-D metric tensor is degenerate, not only 3-D metric tensor.

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