I added a new chapter Quantum gravity, dark matter, andnd prebiotic evolution to "Genes and Memes" discussing the recent vision about prebiotic life in TGD Universe combinig several quite recent steps of prograss related to the understand of the hierarchy of Planck constants defining dark matter hierarchy. I add below the introduction of this chapter.

The ideas related to prebiotic evolution have developed rather rapidly after the discovery of the hierarchy of Planck constants around 2003 providing a general manner to understand living organisms as macroscopic quantum systems.

- Magnetic body as carrier of dark matter realized as phases with non-standard value h
_{eff}=n× h of Planck constant is the key concept in the developments and brings to the description of the living matter a third level besides organism and environment.

- EEG and its predicted fractal variants have interpretation in terms of communication from biological body to to magnetic body and as control of biological body by magnetic body (see this). EEG photons are identified as dark photons and the energy spectrum of dark EEG photons is conjectured to correspond to that for bio-photons. Bio-photons would result in the transformation of dark photons to ordinary ones and their energy spectrum would directly reflect the spectrum of endogenous magnetic fields. If h
_{eff}for given ion is proportional to its mass number, the spectrum of energies for bio-photons resulting from dark cyclotron photons is universal and does not depend on charged particle.

- One can now understand the mechanism making Cooper pairs of bio-superconductors stable, possibly even above room temperatures. Also the understanding of cell membrane as Josephson junction has increased considerably. The recent view is that generalized Josephson junction is in question. The Josephson energy identified as the Coulombic energy difference at two sides of the membrane is generalized by including also the difference of cyclotron energies. This contribution dominates, and this explains why the value of metabolic energy currency is roughly 5-10 times higher than the value of Josephson energy.

One ends up with a model of transmembrane proteins as generalized Josephson junctions by taking a "square root" of the thermodynamical model meaning that Boltzman weights are replaced with their complex square roots. The chemical potential difference of thermodynamical model is replaced with the difference of cyclotron energies. Generalized Josephson energies correspond to the differences of cyclotron energies in the first approximation since Coulombic contribution is small. The communications to the magnetic body by dark photons rely on frequency modulation due to variations of membrane voltage, in particular those induce by nerve pulses.

- The totally unexpected observation was that the states of dark protons forming dark nuclei as string like objects correspond in natural manner to DNA,RNA, aminoacids and even tRNA molecules and that vertebrate genetic code is realized naturally, led to the proposal that prebiotic life relies on dark nuclear physics (see this).

- Taking seriously the findings related to water memory and homeopathy as well as the findings of Gariaev et al has led to a further progress. In this framework water memory and homeopathy provide direct evidence for the role of dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes as prebiotic life forms. The preparation of the homeopathic remedy would induce evolutionary process leading to a generation of a population of regions of water mimicking the magnetic body of the invader molecule. The challenge is to identify these regions.

- The understanding of negentropic entanglement as entanglement described by n× n unit matrix and by unitary matrix for entanglement coefficient allowed a more precise understanding of Negentropy Maximization Principle and led to the conjecture that n is nothing but the integer characterizing h
_{eff}. NMP implies that Universe generates negentropic entanglement, "Akashic records", being analogous to huge library extending quantum jump by quantum jump. It is perhaps not an accident that in quantum computation entanglement matrix is unitary.

- There was also another thread related to the ideas about hierarchy of Planck constants. The findings of Nottale suggest that planets correspond to Bohr orbits with gigantic gravitational Planck constant. It took quite a time to realize that the same predictions follow if h
_{gr}is associated with pairs formed by microscopic systems and Sun and that in this case the values of h_{gr}could be identified with those of h_{eff}.

Already during first years emerged the idea that the Planck constant characterizes magnetic flux tubes connecting two systems and depends on the quantum numbers of the systems assignable to the interactions in question. Therefore one can speak also about h

_{em}assignable to electromagnetic interactions. A vision developed stating that when interaction gets too strong, h_{eff}increases so that the perturbation series in powers of 1/h_{eff}converges and perturbation theory works. At space-time level this means non-determinism, which is key feature of the basic variational principle: the space-time sheets connecting initial and final 3-surface at boundaries of CD are n-sheeted for h_{eff}=n× h and the sheets co-incide at ends.

- The findings of Pollack about exclusion zones and fourth phase of water meant a further breakthrough (see this) and led to the proposal that negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs) of water with H
_{1.5}O stoichiometry are accompanied by magnetic body carrying dark proton nuclei at the flux tubes. EZs are excellent candidates for primitive life forms and can be identified as the primitive life forms making possible water memory and homeopathy.

- The last step of progress relates to the proposal of Tajmar et al that gravimagnetic effect could explain the well-established anomaly relating to the measurement of the mass of Cooper pair in rotating super- conductor. The GRT prediction for the effect is however 28 orders of magnitude too small so that new physics would be needed. The Thomson gravimagnetic field is proportional to h
^{2}so that large value of Planck constant could explain the effect. The value can be estimated and it is of the order of 10^{14}as required! If it is equal to h_{eff}then the energy spectrum of dark EEG photons is that of bio-photons as conjectured earlier!

- In the first section gravimagnetic effect and its biological implications are discussed from TGD point of view.

- In the second section the model for water memory and homeopathy is discussed and shown to lead to a general model for how immune system and bio-catalysis could have developed from their primordial versions,how dark proteins might have emerged as concrete representations for invader molecules making it possible to make the invader non-dangerous by attaching to its magnetic body, how DNA and genetic code could have emerged as symbolic representations for the magnetic bodies of invader molecules and later as symbolic representation of the magnetic body of the system itself. Zero Energy Ontology implies that actually time evolution of the magnetic body can be coded by DNA and protein folding could provide a concrete representation for this time evolution.

## 12 comments:

http://physics.aps.org/articles/v7/58?referer=rss

The final conclusion of the article might be felt as shocking. We have no idea what happens in electrostatic charging! After all these GUTS we have constructed during last 4 decades!

Maybe magnetic flux tubes carrying dark electrons or ions could help in gaining understanding;-). Maybe time begins to be ripe for taking seriously Tesla's experiments. Maybe Tesla will some day be seen as first experimental discoverer of dark matter!

Ironically, at the same time sharpest edge of theoretical physics is having endless debates about whether blackholes have firewalls or not. Brings in mind the discussions of middle age geologists. Return to the roots might be a good idea.

Anomalies are the oxygen that theorist needs to breath. When one gets rid of the illusion about success story of reductionism and widens the perceptive field from high energy particle physics, blackholes, and big bang to the entire physics, breathing becomes possible again.

:) :)

This may be important for primordial life http://phys.org/news/2014-06-biologists-link-production-protein-factories.html

We once talked about the em-signal inducing the protein synthesis, coming from outside the DNA... and you talk of 'dark' regulation.

http://biology.ucsd.edu/research/faculty/jkadonaga#research-tab

http://www.lps.ens.fr/~monasson/Houches/Kadonaga/CorePromoterAnnuRev2003.pdf

Also about the continuum/infinity/primes http://www.simonsfoundation.org/quanta/20131126-to-settle-infinity-question-a-new-law-of-logic/

Simon Donaldson just won a big prize http://www2.imperial.ac.uk/~skdona/

What is the factory whether the parts of the factory are constructed? Can it be factory itself or is there separate factory. Hofstadter should have included this question to his Goedel, Escher, Bach talking about self referential loop and also about genetic code. Amusing that this kind of question does not pop up in mind automatically when one is learning about genetic machinery and mRNA!

Hofstadter had repeated this question by asking where are the parts of this smaller factor constructed. Maybe the recent work helps to circumvent this question.

About em signalling. Or perhaps the intervention of magnetic body and dark realisation of genetic code and dark transcription and translation at the level of fundamental physics is needed.

Dark photon signalling seems to serve as an excitatory signal tending to amplify some process by exciting the needed molecular state favouring the process. Time reversed signal as negative energy photons would suppress.

The geometric attachment of proteins to prevent DNA replication or some other process would serve as negative feedback and would involve reduction of h_eff and shortening of flux tubes connecting molecule to the attaching molecule.

I am not a mathematician to be able to say anything interesting about continuum hypothesis except that it says that there are no infinities between cardinality of integers and reals. There are two schools of though in mathematics: the other proposes an axiom which implies continuum hypothesis and the other proposes axiom allowing these intermediate infinities.

My gut feeling just now is that there are no intermediate infinities but during the following argument I will become mature to change my opinion! I am talking about number theoretic view about infinities inspired by TGD: this is more refined than the purely set theoretic view.

a) There is a hierarchy of infinite primes and these infinities can be distinguished from each other since the ratio of these number at two levels is infinite with respect to real norm. This hierarchy has physical counterpart.

Start form a supersymmetric arithmetic QFT.

a) Second quantize it. You get an enumerable number of free states labelled by the numbers of free bosons and fermions in modes labelled by ordinary primes.

But you get also their bound states as many-particle states in number theoretical analog. They would correspond to the number all roots for all polynomials with rational coefficients. Algebraic numbers is a good guess for this number and they would be enumerable.

The number of these states would correspond to infinity between integers and reals but be enumerable and set theorists would not distinguish between these infinities: physicists would!

The analogs of bound states give rise to a sub-hierarchy in which the ratio of two infinite primes can be finite, zero, of infinity so that it seems sensical to speak about hierarchy.

Should physical mathematician come and tell to se theorists that their set theoretic notion of infinity is not enough. Should one introduce number theory and the notion of divisibility to get finer and more physical classification of infinities indeed giving infinite number of infinities between integers and reals?

b) You can repeat the construction of infinite primes. Take the states of previous level as free states and do the same again. This gives next level in the hierarchy of infinities. This is like taking many particle states as new elementary particles. Again you met the same problem. At the level of many-sheeted space-time space-time sheets containing particles as smaller space-time sheets would be the analogy.

So the question is following: do infinite primes realise a hierarchy of infinities which is between

the enumerable infinity and infinity of points of the real line? At least in number theoretical sense

which seems to be closer to the physicist's intuition. Or not?

http://phys.org/news/2014-06-stanley-miller-forgotten.html

Stanley Millers exp formed peptides and is replicated.

I got a comment on your reply, and as someone not familiar with math I repost it here for your evaluation.

Ian Coleman said: Ulla . I'm reasonably sure the outlined approach won't yield a 'between' state, but will simply reduce to the cardinality of the integers, in much the same way that the rationals do..

Coleman might be right! This is just a list of questions that popped up in my mind.

First of all, one must distinguish between cardinal and ordinal infinity.

The analog for the notion of ordinal infinity for infinite primes is more refined that than in set theory based on successor axiom since it involves the notion of divisibility.

The analog for the notion of cardinal infinity is not at all so clear: these infinite corresponds to numbers of infinite primes at given level of hierarchy. It might well reduce to the standard one if one defines cardinality in terms of set theory and continuum hypothesis might hold true.

At first level the cardinality of infinite primes seems to be that of algebraic numbers. Does this hold true also at higher levels is an interesting question. In any case the hierarchy of infinite primes suggests hierarchy of infinite natural from physics point of view.

Take a look at this! I asked about the Bohr atom model once. Can this be seen as something useful?

http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/463/2077/261.full.pdf

and

http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.012502?referer=rss

Dark coherence explains dark matter? http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.6586

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