Thursday, August 12, 2021

Expanding Venus model

News about unexpected findings relating to the physics of astrophysical objects emerge on an almost daily basis. The most recent news relates to Venus.

Has Venus turned itself inside-out?

The surface of Venus was expected to have craters, just like the surface of Earth, Moon, and Mars but the number of craters is very small. The surface of Venus also has weird features and many volcanoes. Also trace signs of erosion and tectonic shifts were found. The impression is that the surface of Venus had been turned inside out in a catastrophic event that occurred about 750 million years ago.

Since Venus is our sister planet with almost the same mass and radius, it is interesting to notice that the biology of Earth experienced Cambrian explosion 541 million years ago.

  1. The TGD explanation for Cambrian Explosion relies on Expanding Earth model (see this, this, this, and this).

    There was a relatively fast increase of the Earth's radius by factor, which led to the burst of underground oceans to the surface of the Earth and led to the formation of oceans. Standard cosmology predicts a continuous smooth expansion of astrophysical objects. Contrary to this prediction, astrophysical objects do not seem to expand smoothly. In the TGD Universe, the smooth expansion is replaced by rapid jerks and the Cambrian Explosion would be associated with this kind of phase transitions.

  2. In this expansion the multicellular photosynthesizing life burst to the surface. This explains the sudden emergence of highly evolved life forms during the Cambrian Explosion that Darwin realized to be a heavy objection against his theory.

  3. There are many objections to be circumvented. For instance, how photosynthesis could evolve in the underground ocean. Here TGD views dark matter as heff=nh0 phases of ordinary matter, which are relatively dark with respect to each other, come in rescue. Dark water blobs could leak into the interior of Earth and the solar light possessing dark portion could do the same so that photosynthesis became possible (see this).
  4. Did Venus experience a similar rapid expansion 200 million years earlier, about 750 million years ago (or maybe roughly at the same time). Venus does not have water at its surface. This can be understood in terms of heat from solar radiation forcing the evaporation of water and subsequent loss. This also prevented the leakage of the water to the interior of Venus. If there were no water reservoirs inside Venus, no oceans were formed. The cracks of the crust created expanding areas of magma, which were like the bottoms of the oceans at Earth. Also at Earth a fraction about 2/3 of the Earth's surface is sea bottom.

Why does Venus not possess a magnetic field?

Venus offers also a second puzzle. Venus does not have an appreciable magnetic field although it has been speculated that it has had it (see this). The solar dynamo mechanism would suggest its presence.

  1. TGD predicts that there are two kinds of flux tubes carrying Earth's magnetic field BE with a nominal value of .5 Gauss. This applies quite generally. The flux tubes have a closed cross section - this is possible only in TGD Universe, where the space-time is 4-surface in M4× CP2. The flux tubes can have a vanishing Kähler magnetic flux or non-vanishing quantized monopole flux: this has no counterpart in Maxwellian electrodynamics. For Earth, the monopole part would correspond to about .2 Gauss - 2/5 of the full strength of BE.
  2. Monopole part needs no currents to maintain it and this makes it possible to understand how the Earth's magnetic field has not disappeared a long time ago. This also explains the existence of magnetic fields in cosmological scales.

    The orientation of the Earth's magnetic field is varying. In the TGD based model the monopole part plays the role of master. When the non-monopole part becomes too weak, the magnetic body defined by the monopole part changes its orientation. This induced currents refresh the non-monopole part (this). The standard dynamo model is part of this model.

  3. There is an interesting (perhaps more than) analogy with the standard phenomenological description of magnetism in condensed matter. One has B= H+M. H field is analogous to the monopole part and the non-monopole part is analogous to the magnetization M induced by H. B= H+M would represent the total field. If this description corresponds to the presence of two kinds of flux tubes, the TGD view about magnetic fields would have been part of electromagnetism from the beginning!

    Flux tubes can also carry electric fields and also for them this kind of decomposition makes sense. Could also the fields D and H have a similar interpretation?

    In the linear model of magnetism, one has M= χH and B=μH= (1+χ)H. For diamagnets one has χ<0 and for paramagnets χ>0. Earth would be paramagnet with χ ≈ 3/2 if the linear model works. χ is a tensor in the general case so that B and H can have different directions.

  4. All stars and planets, also Venus, correspond to flux tube tangles formed from monopole flux tubes. This leaves only one possibility. Venus behaves like a super-conductor and is an ideal diamagnet with χ=-1 so that B vanishes. The monopole part would be present however.

    This could provide a totally new insight to the Meissner effect and loss of superconductivity. In TGD the based model (see this), monopole flux tubes carry supracurrent. The BSC model however requires the absence of a magnetic field. Could the induced non-monopole field cancel the monopole part. Venus would indeed be a superconductor!

  5. The tilt of the rotation axis relative to the plane of rotation around the Sun is very small for Venus, about 3 degrees and much smaller than for the Earth. This implies that the surface temperature of Venus is roughly constant. At Earth plate tectonics makes possible the heat transfer from the interior to the surface and its leakage to the outer space. For Venus this is not possible.

    Could this relate to the different magnetization properties of Earth and Venus? The TGD based model also predicts superconductivity driven by external energy feed. This would be possible also above critical temperature. The energy feed would increase the value of heff and below the critical temperature it would be provided by the energy liberated in the formation of Cooper pairs which need not actually be the current carriers since dark electrons can carry the current without dissipation. In TGD inspired biology and quite universally, the basic role of metabolic energy feed is to prevent the reductions of the values of heff.

    Could the superconductivity be forced by the thermal energy feed from the interior of Venus? Superconductivity means in the TGD framework large heff and therefore complexity, intelligence, and long quantum coherence length (see this). Could Venus be alive but in a very different sense than Earth? The same question can be of course made in the case of Sun.

    The possibility that life actually appears in cosmic scales and is associated with quantum coherent flux tube networks associated with active galactic nuclei usually identified as super-massive blackholes containing stellar and planetary systems as tangles is discussed here.

    Also Mars lacks the global magnetic field although it has auroras assigned with local fields. Could also Mars be alive in the same same sense as Venus? Note that the recent radius of Mars is about 1/2 of Earth's radius. If Venus expanded by factor 2, all these 3 planets would have had roughly the same radius for about 750 million years ago. Mars would be waiting for the moment of expansion.

See the article Updated version of Expanding Earth model or the chapter Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

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