Wednesday, May 11, 2022

TGD based solution of the satellite plane anomaly

The satellite galaxies of larger galaxies tend to move in a plane around the host as described in the review article of Pawlovski whereas the ΛCDM predicts that the orbits are more or less random. The article gives illustrations showing the concentration around the planes for the Milky Way, Andromeda, and Centaurian. The plane of satellites is approximately orthogonal to the plane of the host galaxy in all cases.

Quite generally, ΛCDM fails on short scales. The success in long scales is understandable in the TGD framework since the approximation of the mass density of cosmic strings by a continuous mass density is good in long scales.

Why planar orbits are preferred?

TGD predicts (see this , this , and this) a fractal network of very massive long cosmic strings which can locally thicken to flux tubes: this thickening involves transformation of dark energy and possible dark matter of cosmic string to ordinary matter giving rise to galaxies and other structures. Also stars would have thickened flux tube tangles inside themselves. The model finds support from the observation that galaxies form long strings as found decades ago (Zeldowich was one of the discoverers).

The TGD based model predicts the formation of planes in which objects in various scales move. The prediction is fractal: this applies to planets around stars, stars around galaxies, satellite galaxies around larger galaxies,....

This model explains the satellite plane anomaly and also the earlier anomalies if the galaxies are associated with the long "cosmic strings" predicted by TGD (see this). They create a strong gravitational potential giving rise to a radial force in the plane orthogonal to the cosmic string. The motion along the string is free whereas the planar motion is rotation. The velocity spectrum is flat as required by the flatness of the galactic velocity spectrum. In the simplest model cosmic string is the carrier of galactic dark matter and dark energy. No dark matter halo and no exotic dark matter particles are needed.

Helical orbits are the most general orbits. If a concentration of matter occurs to a plane, it tends to catch objects moving freely in the direction of string to its vertical gravitational field and planar sheets such planetary systems, spiral galaxies, and the planar systems formed by satellite galaxies can form.

The first guess is that the satellite galaxies move in the plane of the host galaxy. The plane is however approximately orthogonal to the plane of the host in the 3 cases illustrated in the review article of Pavlowski.

  1. I have proposed that the intersections of nearly orthogonal cosmic strings could induce the thickening to flux tubes and transformation of the dark energy of flux tubes to ordinary matter starting to rotate in the planes defined by the intersecting cosmic string.
  2. These intersections are unavoidable for strings like objects in 4-D space-time and would occur at discrete points. In the collision of cosmic strings, these points would define the nucleus of the host galaxy, say the Milky Way. The satellite galaxies would be assignable to the plane defined by the second colliding cosmic string, which would take the role of stars in the plane of the host galaxy.

    The colling cosmic strings would be in a very asymmetric position. Why this asymmetry? Could the satellites correspond to circular pieces of cosmic string generated in the collision by reconnections (note the analogy with reconnections of magnetic flux tubes of solar wind occurring during auroras) and generating the matter of the satellite.

    Why only the second cosmic string would have satellites around it? For two separate cosmic strings it is difficult to understand why reconnection would form loops. This process is natural for the two antiparallel strands of a closed U-shaped loop. Cosmic strings indeed form loops.

This model involves two strings. One can also consider a single cosmic string.
  1. Cosmic strings are closed in a large enough scale, and the model for quantum biology encourages to consider U-shaped cosmic strings for which the parallel string portions carry opposite magnetic fluxes and can naturally reconnect. The flux tube could self-reconnect and generate loops, possibly assignable to the satellite galaxies. The reconnection process would be fundamental in TGD inspired quantum biology (see for instance \cite{btart/alleledominance}).
  2. In the reconnection of the strands carrying opposite magnetic flux would form a section S orthogonal to the long part L of the U-shaped string. Could one assign the host galaxy with L and the satellite galaxies to S? L and S would define nearly orthogonal planes and the satellite galaxies could form around loops created from L by a repeated reconnection and they would rotate around the host in the plane defined by S.

Is there something that could define galactic planes?

One can wonder whether there is something, which serves as a seed for the concentration of stars around a selected plane, perhaps associated with the boundary of a cell of the honeycomb structure. The collision of two cosmic strings would naturally define two planes of this kind. In the case of a single U-shaped closed string, which looks a more promising option, there is no obvious identification of the plane orthogonal to this object.

  1. In the TGD Universe, space-time is a 4-surface in H=M4× CP2 and also membrane like entities are predicted as 4-D minimal surfaces of H having lower-D singularities analogous to the frames of a soap film minimal surface property (and simultaneous extermality with respect to Kähler action) fail but the field equations for the entire action involving volume term and Kähler action are satisfied at the singularities.
  2. One can also consider 3-D singularities, which form a tessellation of H3 at a given moment of cosmic time a and assign it with the honeycomb of large voids. The frame would be a tessellation. The quantization of cosmic redshifts in a given direction, discussed from the TGD viewpoint n here, could be seen as evidence for cosmic tessellations having astrophysical objects at their nodes.

    The boundaries of the large cosmic voids form a honeycomb structure and could correspond to a tessellation of H3. The long U-shaped cosmic strings would be associated with the boundaries of the cells of the honeycomb and perhaps even form a 2-D lattice like structure.

  3. The objects M1× X2× S1, where M1 is time axis, X2 is a piece of plane of E2, and S1 is a geodesic sphere of CP2, define very simple minimal surfaces carrying no induced Kähler field. The objects X2× S1 could accompany the boundaries of the honeycomb cells. Universe could be populated by these membrane-like objects. Cell membrane is one important example.
  4. Planar or approximately planar objects orthogonal to the cosmic string could tend to gather the matter flowing along helical orbits along the cosmic string. These planes would accompany planetary, galactic, etc... planes and the honeycomb structure could be also seen as a fractal analog of a multicellular structure.
  5. Warped planes represent slightly more complex minimal surfaces with 3-D M4 projection (a thin metal foil or sheet of paper gets warped) for which the plane is deformed but still flat minimal surface. I am not sure whether the "warping" \cite{bcast{warping (see this) of the outer regions of galactic planes, which has received attention recently (see this" and this") but has been detected already 1956, is really really warping that is vertical deformation, which depends only single coordinate varying along a straight line (a 2-D plane wave of membrane).
See the article A solution of two galactic anomalies in the TGD framework or the chapter Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

No comments: