Summary of the findings of the James Webb telescope
The existence of more than 700 galaxies a few hundred million years after BB is in sharp conflict with the standard Big Bang Model although it is consistent with the cosmic expansion. Distance measurements indeed use cosmic redshift to deduce the distances of the galaxies. In any case, the James Webb telescope is profoundly shaking the foundations of cosmology. It seems that one can safely forget the standard story about the formation of stars and galaxies and also inflation as the generally accepted story of what happened before that.
In the standard picture, the epoch of reionization starts 1 billion years after the BB as the fog of gas is cleared by reionization so that photons can propagate. No signals hould arrive from the epoc preceding reionization. These 700 galaxies should not be there since they are too young, existing 370-500 million years after BB.
The mass of the galaxy serves as a measure for the age of the galaxy but 6 galaxies with age .5 Gy and 10 times bigger than the Milky Way have been found! This makes one wonder, what will be found when one goes farther back in time?
JW can see galaxies as extended objects with visible structures and this provides a lot of additional information about the composition of these too-early birds.
- Complex organic molecules, found also in smoke/fog, were found: this is 1 billion years too early! These molecules, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (see this), are big molecules, containing hundreds of atoms. What adds to the mystery, is that PAHs were found in regions where there are no stars or star formation but not in regions where stars are forming! PAH world hypothesis states that PAHs have played a key role in prebiotic life leading the emergence of RNAs (see this).
- Also the locations of these molecules can be determined by JW in terms of their spectra. The distribution of the molecules is not uniform as one might expect. These galaxies can have the same mass as the Milky Way. The mass serves as a measure for the age of the galaxy but the age of these galaxies, according to standard cosmology, is only 10 percent of that of the Milky Way. This creates a paradox.
- One particular galaxy, GN-z11 (see this) is observed as it existed 13.3 Gy ago.
- GN-z11 is found to contain an exceptionally high proportion of nitrogen and abundance of stars.
- Birth of globular star clusters (see this) have been found in GN-z11. This finding is especially paradoxical since they are regarded as very old objects! The compositions of O,N, Na, and Al vary inside globular clusters. These anomalies have been known for a long time (see this). One however expects that the stars of the cluster should have the same origin and age in the early universe.
- Also supermassive stars (see this), having masses of few hundred solar masses, have been found in globular clusters (see this). Also multiple globular clusters have been found.
TGD explanation of the paradoxical findings of the James Webb telescope
What goes wrong with the standard cosmology? Could TGD inspired cosmology suggest an answer? Consider first zero energy ontology (ZEO) and the TGD view of dark matter.
- TGD suggests that the prevailing view about the notion of time is wrong. TGD forces a new ontology of quantum theory, which I call zero energy ontology (ZEO) (see this). Causal diamond (CD) as a state-determined and dynamical quantization volume has two boundaries and zero energy states are in fermionic degrees of freedom superpositions of pairs of 3-D states asociated with these two.
Zero energy state corresponds also to a superposition of space-time surfaces connecting the two boundaries of CD. By the almost deterministic holography implied by the 4-D general coordinate invariance, the space-time analogs 4-D analogs of Bohr orbits of particles as 3-D surfaces. In ZEO, subjective time and geometric time are not the same thing but are strongly correlated. This new ontology solves the basic paradox of quantum measurement theory.
There are two kind of state functions reductions (SFRs): "Small" SFRs (SSFRs) corresponding to repeated measurements in Zeno effect and "big" SFRs (BSFRs) corresponding to ordinary SFRs. CD has two kind of boundaries; active and passive. In SSFRs, the active boundary and states at it change whereas the passive boundary and the states at it remain unaffected. This is the counterpart of the Zeno effect: the state changes slighty but the arrow of time is preserved. SSFRs also correspond to weak measurements in quantum optics.
In BSFRs the arrow of time changes. BSFR occurs when the set of observables measured in SSFR a the active boundary of CD does not commute with those measured earlier at the passive boundary of CD. CD increases in size in a statistical sense during the sequence of SSFRs since the active boundary drifts farther from the passive one. This gives rise to the correlation of subjective time a sequence of SSFRs with geometric time a distance between the tips of CD.
- TGD also predicts quantum coherence in arbitrarily long scales and gravitational quantum coherence corresponds to the longest, even astrophysical, quantum coherence scales gravitational interactio has infinite range and is unscreened (see this).
- The change of arrow of time in BSFRs implies dramatic effects even in astrophysical scales. Even astrophysical objects can live forth and back in geometric time. The ageing in the physical sense occurs in both directions of geometric time so that the physical age is total time spent in this moving forth and back. Since the passive boundary is stationary, the physical ageing in ZEO is faster than ageing in the standard ontology.
During this process the physical system ages. Although the size of CDs increases in statistical sense, the ageing occurs in both directions of time so that the age is total time spent in this forth and back in time process. Hence ageing in ZEO is faster than ageing in the standard ontology.
- ZEO explains stars and galaxies older than the Universe.
- ZEO also predicts the variation of the ages of galaxies and stars in the very early Universe. Since galaxies and stars can be born at different periods in this life forth and back in geometric time, they can have different ages in the sense of ZEO. This explains why the abundances of atoms associated with the stars of star clusters are found to vary. The life forth and back in time also explains the appearance of globular star clusters, which are very old and are not possible in standard cosmology.
- The TGD view of nuclear physics, originally inspired by the findings about "cold fusion", and based on the notion of dark nuclei, identified scaled up analogs of ordinary nuclei, leads to a model of prestellar evolution based on dark fusion (explaining also "cold fusion", see this, this, and this).
"Dark" means that the nucleons of these nuclei have non-standard values of Planck constant heff=nh0. In the number theoretic vision of TGD, n has interpretation in terms of dimension of extension of rationals associated with a polynomial with integer coefficient defining a space-time region (see this,this, and this).
Dark fusion generates dark nuclei as sequences of dark protons at monopole flux tubes having size scale of electron Compton length. Their binding energy is much smaller than the binding energy of the ordinary nuclei. Dark nuclei can therefore transform to ordinary nuclei and liberate most of the nuclear binding energy in the process, this give rise to "cold fusion". The temperature of the dark fusion region increases in the process and eventually reaches the temperature at which ordinary nuclear fusion can start.
Even chemistry and complex molecules can emerge before the ordinary nuclear fusion is ignited. This could explain the presence of PAHs, in particular their presence in regions where there is no star formation or stars.
- Why signals from the period preceding the reionization are possible? One reason is that there was a reionization. TGD also allows us to consider the possibility that the signals arrive as dark photons along monopole flux tubes of a cosmic flux tube network acting as an analog of the nervous system. Also in the TGD based model of the brain dark photon signals propagating between the central nervous system and magnetic body play a key role.
See the article TGD view of the paradoxical findings of the James Webb telescope or the chapter TGD View of the Engine Powering Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.