Quasars feature gas swirling towards a supermassive black hole inhabiting a galactic centre. The disk accretion produces enormous amounts of radiation from optical to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Extreme UV (EUV) emission, stemming from the energetic innermost disk regions, has critical implications for the production of broad emission lines in quasars, the origin of the correlation between linewidth and luminosity (or the Baldwin effect) and cosmic reionization.
Spectroscopic and photometric analyses have claimed that brighter quasars have on average redder EUV spectral energy distributions (SEDs), which may, however, have been affected by a severe EUV detection incompleteness bias.
Here, after controlling for this bias, we reveal a luminosity-independent universal average SED down to a rest frame of ≈ 500 Å for redshift z&asymp: 2 quasars over nearly two orders of magnitude in luminosity, contrary to the standard thin disk prediction and the Baldwin effect, which persists even after controlling for the bias.
Furthermore, we show that the intrinsic bias-free mean SED is redder in the EUV than previous mean quasar composite spectra, while the intrinsic bias-free median SED is even redder and is unexpectedly consistent with the simply truncated wind model prediction, suggesting prevalent winds in quasars and altered black hole growth. A microscopic atomic origin is probably responsible for both the universality and redness of the average SED. What does TGD say?
- In the standard accretion disk theory inner luminosity is determined by the mass of the accretion disk entering into the blackchole. What is however found that the spectral energy distribution of light from quasar does not depend on the inner luminosity at all in the extreme UV (EUV) range! It can even decrease when the intrinsic luminosity increases! These paradoxical findings challenge the standard accretion disk theory.
- TGD based view of quasars (see for instance this, this, this, and this) suggests an explanation of the anomaly. The galactic matter would be formed as dark energy and dark matter from a cosmic string like objects thickening to a monopole flux tube with smaller string tension emits dark particles transforming to ordinary matter forming the galaxy. Cosmic strings would be transversal to the galactic plane and the gravitational field created by their dark energy energy predicts the flat velocity spectrum of galaxies.
- The flow of radiation from the thickened flux tube (rather than from the energy liberated as matter of the accretion disk falls into the blackhole) would give rise to the spectral energy distribution in EUV and the inner luminosity at longer wavelengths would be determined by the accretion disk emission. Also the article suggests that galactic wind explains the energy spectrum: galactic wind would correspond to this EUV radiation from the monopole flux tube. This energy spectrum would be universal in the sense that it would reflect only the properties of the thickening cosmic string and universality is indeed claimed.
In atomic physics the quantization prevents the fall of electron to atomic nucleus. Could the same happen now and prevent the fall of matter from the accretion disk back to the quasar.
- One can argue that a realistic quantum model for the matter around quasar is based on the treatment of the flux tube tangle as spherically symmetric mass distribution with the mass of the blackhole assigned to the quasars. Indeed, the straight portion of cosmic strings gives a large contribution to the gravitational force only at large distances so that the contribution of the tangle dominates.
- The mechanism preventing the fall of matter to blackholes would be identical with that in the case of atoms. Also in the accretion disk model, the angular momentum of rotating matter in the accretion disk tends to prevent the fall into the blackhole and the angular momentum must be transferred away.
- The orbital radii would be given by the Nottale model for planetary orbits with rn = n2agr, where agr=4π GM/β02= 2π rS/β02 is gravitational Bohr radius. The ratio M/MSun of the mass M of the quasar blackhole to solar mass is estimated to be in the range [107,3× 109] predicting that the Schwartschild radius rS is in the range 3× 107-1010 km. The radius of racc should be larger than agr: agr<aacc. Note that the size of the accretion disk is in some cases estimated to be few light-days: 1 light-day ≈ 1010 km whereas the visible size of quasar is measured in light years.
- The condition agr<racc gives the condition 2π/β02<racc/rS giving for β0 an upper bound in the range β0⊂ [.02,.2]. The values of β0 in this range are considerably larger than the value β0≈ 2-11 predicted by the Bohr model for the orbits of inner planets. Note that for the Earth the estimate for β0 is β0≈ 1.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.
For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.