Witten manages to explain in rather comprehensible manner both the construction recipe of Jones polynomial and the idea about how Jones polynomial emerges from topological quantum field theory as a vacuum expectation of so called Wilson loop defined by path integral with weighting coming from Chern-Simons action. Witten also tells that during the last year he has been working with an attempt to understand in terms of quantum theory the so called Khovanov polynomial associated with a much more abstract link invariant whose interpretation and real understanding remains still open.

This kind of talks are extremely inspiring and lead to a series of questions unavoidably culminating to the frustrating "Why I do not have the brain of Witten making perhaps possible to answer these questions?". This one must just accept. In the following I summarize some thoughts inspired by the associations of the talk of Witten with quantum TGD and with the model of DNA as topological quantum computer. In my own childish manner I dare believe that these associations are interesting and dare also hope that some more brainy individual might take them seriously.

An idea inspired by TGD approach which also main streamer might find interesting is that the Jones invariant defined as vacuum expectation for a Wilson loop in 2+1-D space-time generalizes to a vacuum expectation for a collection of Wilson loops in 2+2-D space-time and could define an invariant for 2-D knots and for cobordisms of braids analogous to Jones polynomial. As a matter fact, it turns out that a generalization of gauge field known as gerbe is needed and that in TGD framework classical color gauge fields defined the gauge potentials of this field. Also topological string theory in 4-D space-time could define this kind of invariants. Of course, it might well be that this kind of ideas have been already discussed in literature. As reader have noticed, the posting has gradually evolved during last days as I have noticed elementary errors and inaccuracies. My apologies for possible inconvenience.

**1. Some TGD background**

What makes quantum TGD interesting concerning the description of braids and braid cobordisms is that braids and braid cobordisms emerge both at the level of generalized Feynman diagrams and in the model of DNA as a topological quantum computer.

**1.1 Time-like and space-like braidings for generalized Feynman diagrams**

- In TGD framework space-times are 4-D surfaces in 8-D imbedding space. Basic objects are partonic 2-surfaces at the two ends of causal diamonds CD (intersections of future and past directed light-cones of 4-D Minkowski space with each point replaced with CP_2). The light-like orbits of partonic 2-surfaces define 3-D light-like 3-surfaces identifiable as lines of generalized Feynman diagrams. At the vertices of generalized
Feynman diagrams incoming and outgoing light-like 3-surfaces meet. These diagrams are not direct generalizations of string diagrams since they are singular as 4-D manifolds just like the ordinary Feynman diagrams.
By strong form of holography one can assign to the partonic 2-surfaces and their tangent space data space-time surfaces as preferred exrtremals of Kähler action. This guarantees also general coordinate invariance and allows to interpret the extremals as generalized Bohr orbits.

- One can assign to the partonic 2-surfaces discrete sets of points carrying quantum numbers. As a matter fact, these sets of points seem to emerge from the solutions of the Chern-Simons Dirac equation rather naturally. These points define braid strands as the partonic 2-surface moves and defines a light-like 3-surface as its orbit as a surface of 4-D space-time surface. In the generic case the strands get tangled in time direction and one has linking and knotting giving rise to a time-like braiding.
- Also space-like braidings are possible. One can imagine that the partonic 2-surfaces are connected by space-like curves defining TGD counterparts for strings and that in the initial state these curves define space-like braids whose ends belong to different partonic 2-surfaces. Quite generally, the basic conjecture is that the preferred extremals define orbits of string-like objects with their ends at the partonic 2-surfaces. One would have slicing of space-time surfaces by string world sheets one one hand and by partonic 2-surface on one hand. This string model is very special due to the fact that the string orbits define what could be called braid cobordisms representing which could represent unknotting of braids. String orbits in higher dimensional space-times do not allow this topological interpretation.

**1.2 Dance metaphor**

Time like braidings induces space-like braidings and one can speak of time-like or dynamical braiding and even duality of time-like and space-like braiding. What happens can be understood in terms of dance metaphor.

- One can imagine that the points carrying quantum numbers are like dancers at parquettes defined by partonic 2-surfaces. These parquettes are somewhat special in that it is moving and changing its shape: dancers like me would probably get sea sick at this kind of parquette.
- Space-like braidings means that the feet of the dancers at different parquettes are connected by threads. As the dance continues, the threads connecting the feet of different dancers at different parquettes get tangled so that the dance is coded to the braiding of the threads. Time-like braiding induce space-like braiding. One has what might be called a cobordism for space-like braiding transforming it to a new one.

** 1.3 DNA as topological quantum computer**

The model for topological quantum computation is based on the idea that time-like braidings defining topological quantum computer programs. These programs are robust since the topology of braiding is not affected by small deformations.

- The first key idea in the model of DNA as topological quantum computer is based on the observation that the lipids of cell membrane form a 2-D liquid whose flow defines the dance in which dancers are lipids which define a flow pattern defining a topological quantum computation. Lipid layers assignable to cellular and nuclear membranes are the parquettes. This 2-D flow pattern can be induced by the liquid flow near the cell membrane or in case of nerve pulse transmission by the nerve pulses flowing along the axon. This alone defines topological quantum computation.
- In DNA as topological quantum computer model one however makes a stronger assumption motivated by the vision that DNA is the brain of cell and that information must be communicated to DNA level wherefrom it is communicated to what I call magnetic body. It is assumed that the lipids of the cell membrane are connected to DNA nucleotides by magnetic flux tubes defining a space-like braiding. It is also possible to connect lipids of cell membrane to the lipids of other cell membranes, to the tubulins at the surfaces of microtubules, and also to the aminoadics of proteins. The spectrum of possibilities is really wide.
The space-like braid strands would correspond to magnetic flux tubes connecting DNA nucleotides to lipids of nuclear or cell membrane. The running of the topological quantum computer program defined by the time-like braiding induced by the lipid flow would be coded to a space-like braiding of the magnetic flux tubes. The braiding of the flux tubes would define a universal memory storage mechanism and combined with 4-D view about memory provides a very simple view about how memories are stored and how they are recalled.

**2. Could braid cobordisms define more general braid invariants?**

Witten says that one should somehow generalize the notion of knot invariant. The above described framework indeed suggests a very natural generalization of braid invariants to those of braid cobordisms reducing to braid invariants when the braid at the other end is trivial. This description is especially natural in TGD but allows a generalization in which Wilson loops in 4-D sense describe invariants of braid cobordisms.

** 2.1 Difference between knotting and linking**

Before my modest proposal of a more general invariant some comments about knotting and linking are in order.

- One must distinguish between internal knotting of each braid strand and linking of 2 strands. They look the same in the 3-D case but in higher dimensions knotting and linking are not the same thing. Codimension 2 surfaces get knotted in the generic case, in particular the 2-D orbits of the braid strands can get knotted so that this gives additional topological flavor to the theory of strings in 4-D space-time. Linking occurs for two surfaces whose dimension d
_{1}and d_2 satisfying d_{1}+d_2= D-1, where D is the dimension of the imbedding space. - 2-D orbits of strings do not link in 4-D space-time but do something more radical since the sum of their dimensions is D=4 rather than only D-1=3. They intersect and it is impossible to eliminate the intersection without a change of topology of the stringy 2-surfaces: a hole is generated in either string world sheet. With a slight deformation intersection can be made to occur generically at discrete points.

** 2.2 Topological strings in 4-D space-time define knot cobordisms**

What makes the 4-D braid cobordisms interesting is following.

- The opening of knot by using brute force by forcing the strands to go through each other induces this kind of intersection point for the corresponding 2-surfaces. From 3-D perspective this looks like a temporary cutting of second string, drawing the string ends to some distance and bringing them back and gluing together as one approaches the moment when the strings would go through each other. This surgical operation for either string produces a pair of non-intersecting 2-surfaces with the price that the second string world sheet becomes topologically non-trivial carrying a hole in the region were intersection would occur. This operation relates a given crossing of braid strands to its dual crossing in the construction of Jones polynomial in given step (string 1 above string 2 is transformed to string 2 above string 1).
- One can also cut both strings temporarily and glue them back together in such a manner that end a/b of string 1 is glued to the end c/d of string 2. This gives two possibilities. The first corresponds to reconnection and second to a permanent splitting of second string and is not of interest now- it can however happen in the vertices of generalized Feynman diagrams. Reconnection appears as the second operation in the construction of Jones invariant besides the operation putting the string above the second one below it or vice versa. Reconnection represents the analog of trouser vertex for closed strings replaced with braid strands.
- These observations suggest that stringy diagrams describe the braid cobordisms and a kind of topological open string model in 4-D space-time could be used to construct invariants of braid cobordisms. The dynamics of strand ends at the partonic 2-surfaces would partially induce the dynamics of the space-like braiding. This dynamics need not induce the un-knotting of space-like braids and simple string diagrams for open strings are enough to define a cobordism leading to un-knotting. The holes needed to realize the crossover for braid strands would contribute to
the Wilson loop an additional term corresponding to the rotation of the gauge potential around the boundary of the hole (non-integrable phase factor). In Abelian case this gives simple commuting phase factor.

**2.3. Invariants of braid cobordisms and 2-knots as vacuum expectations of Wilson loops in 4-D space-time**

The interpretation of string world sheets in terms of Wilson loops in four-dimensional space-time is very natural so that Witten's a original identification of the Jones polynomial as vacuum expectation for a Wilson loop in 2+1-D space might be replaced with a vacuum expectation for a collection of Wilson loops in 3+1-D space-time and would characterize in the general case (multi-)braid cobordism rather than braid. If the braid at the lower or upped boundary is trivial, braid invariant is obtained. The intersections of the Wilson loops would correspond to the violent un-knotting operations and the boundaries of the resulting holes give an additional Wilson loop. An alternative interpretation is as the analog of Jones polynomial for 2-D knots in 4-D space-time generalizing Witten's theory. This description looks completely general and does not require TGD at all.

Suppose that the space-like braid strands connecting partonic 2-surfaces at given boundary of CD and light-like braids connecting partonic 2-surfaces belonging to opposite boundaries of CD form connected closed strands. The collection of closed loops can be identified as boundaries of Wilson loops and the expectation value is defined as the product of traces assignable to the loops. The definition is exactly the same as in 2+1-D case.

Is this generalization of Wilson loops enough to describe 2-knots? In the spirit of the proposed philosophy one could ask whether there exist two-knots not reducible to cobordisms of 1-knots whose knot invariants require cobordisms of 2-knots and therefore 2-braids in 5-D space-time. Could it be that dimension D=4 is somehow very special so that there is no need to go to D=5? This might be the case since for ordinary knots Jones polynomial is very faithful invariant.

Innocent novice could try to answer the question in the following manner. Let us study what happens locally as the 2-D closed surface in 4-D space gets knotted.

- In 1-D case knotting reduces to linking and means that the first homotopy group of the knot complement is changed so that the imbedding of first circle implies that the there exists imbedding of the second circle that cannot be transformed to each other without cutting the first circle temporarily. This phenomenon occurs also for single circle as the connected sum operation for two linked circles producing single knotted circle demonstrates.
- In 2-D case the complement of knotted 2-sphere has a non-trivial second homotopy group so that 2-balls have homotopically non- equivalent imbeddings, which cannot be transformed to each other without intersection of the 2-balls taking place during the process. Therefore the description of 2-knotting in the proposed manner would require cobordisms of 2-knots and thus 5-D space-time surfaces. However, since 3-D description for ordinary knots works so well, one could hope that the generalization the notion of Wilson loop could allow to avoid 5-D description altogether. The generalized Wilson loops would be assigned to 2-D surfaces and gauge potential A would be replaced with 2-gauge potential B defining a three-form F= dB as the analog of gauge field.
- This generalization of bundle structure known as gerbe structure has been introduced in algebraic geometry (see this and this) and studied also in theoretical physics. 3-forms appear as analogs of gauge fields also in the QFT limit of string model. Algebraic geometer would see gerbe as a generalization of bundle structure in which gauge group is replaced with a gauge groupoid. Essentially a structure of structures seems to be in question. For instance, the principal bundles with given structure group for given space defines a gerbe. In the recent case the space of gauge fields in space-time could be seen as a gerbe. Gerbes have been also assigned to loop spaces and WCW can be seen as a generalization of loop space. Lie groups define a much more mundane example about gerbe. The 3-form F is given by F(X,Y,Z)= B(X,[Y,Z]) , where B is Killing form and for U(n) reduces to (g
^{-1}dg)^{3}. It will be found that classical color gauge fields define gerbe gauge potentials in TGD framework in a natural manner.

**3. TGD inspired theory of braid cobordisms and 2-knots**

In the sequel the considerations are restricted to TGD and to a comparison of Witten's ideas with those emerging in TGD framework.

**3.1 Weak form of electric-magnetic duality and duality of space-like and time-like braidings**

Witten notices that much of his work in physics relies on the assumption that magnetic charges exist and that rather frustratingly, cosmic inflation implies that all traces of them disappear. In TGD Universe the non-trivial topology of CP_2makes possible Kähler magnetic charge and inflation is replaced with quantum criticality. The recent view about elementary particles is that they correspond to string like objects with length of order electro-weak scale with Kähler magnetically charged wormhole throats at their ends. Therefore magnetic charges would be there and LHC might be able to detect their signatures if LHC would get the idea of trying to do this.

Witten mentions also electric-magnetic duality. If I understood correctly, Witten believes that it might provide interesting new insights to the knot invariants. In TGD framework one speaks about weak form of elecric magnetic duality. This duality states that Kähler electric fluxes at space-like ends of the space-time sheets inside CDs and at wormhole throats are proportional to Kähler magneic fluxes so that the quantization of Kähler electric charge quantization reduces to purely homological quantization of Kähler magnetic charge.

The weak form of electric-magnetic duality fixes the boundary conditions of field equations at the light-like and space-like 3-surfaces. Together with the conjecture that the Kähler current is proportional to the corresponding instanton current this implies that Kähler action for the preferred extremal sof Kähler action reduces to 3-D Chern-Simons term so that TGD reduces to almost topological QFT. This means an enormous mathematical simplification of the theory and gives hopes about the solvability of the theory. Since knot invariants are defined in terms of Abelian Chern-Simons action for induced Kähler gauge potential, one might hope that TGD could as a by-product define invariants of braid cobordisms in terms of the unitary U-matrix of the theory between zero energy states and having as its rows the non-unitary M-matrices analogous to thermal S-matrices.

Electric magnetic duality is 4-D phenomenon as is also the duality between space-like and time like braidings essential also for the model of topological quantum computation. Also this suggests that some kind of topological string theory for the space-time sheets inside CDs could allow to define the braid cobordism invariants.

** 3.2 Could Kähler magnetic fluxes define invariants of braid cobordisms?**

Can one imagine of defining knot invariants or more generally, invariants of knot cobordism in this framework? As a matter fact, also Jones polynomial describes the process of unknotting and the replacement of unknotting with a general cobordism would define a more general invariant. Whether the Khovanov invariants might be understood in this more general framework is an interesting question.

- One can assign to the 2-dimensional stringy surfaces defined by the orbits of space-like braid strands Kähler magnetic fluxes as flux integrals over these surfaces and these integrals depend only on the end points of the space-like strands so that one deform the space-like strands in an arbitrarily manner. One can in fact assign these kind of invariants to pairs of knots and these invariants define the dancing operation transforming these knots to each other. In the special case that the second knot is un-knot one obtains a knot-invariant (or link- or braid- invariant).
- The objection is that these invariants depend on the orbits of the end points of the space-like braid strands. Does this mean that one should perform an averaging over the ends with the condition that space-like braid is not affected topologically by the allowed deformations for the positions of the end points?
- Under what conditions on deformation the magnetic fluxes are not affect in the deformation of the braid strands at 3-D surfaces? The change of the Kähler magnetic flux is magnetic flux over the closed 2-surface defined by initial non-deformed and deformed stringy two-surfaces minus flux over the 2-surfaces defined by the original time-like and space-like braid strands connected by a thin 2-surface to their small deformations. This is the case if the deformation corresponds to a U(1) gauge transformation for a Kähler flux. That is diffeomorphism of M
^{4}and symplectic transformation of CP_2 inducing the U(1) gauge transformation.Hence a natural equivalence for braids is defined by these transformations. This is quite not a topological equivalence but quite a general one. Symplectic transformations of CP_2 at light-like and space-like 3-surfaces define isometries of the world of classical worlds so that also in this sense the equivalence is natural. Note that the deformations of space-time surfaces correspond to this kind of transformations only at space-like 3-surfaces at the ends of CDs and at the light-like wormhole throats where the signature of the induced metric changes. In fact, in quantum TGD the sub-spaces of world of classical worlds with constant values of zero modes (non-quantum fluctuating degrees of freedom) correspond to orbits of 3-surfaces under symplectic transformations so that the symplectic restriction looks rather natural also from the point of view of quantum dynamics and the vacuum expectation defined by Kähler function be defined for physical states.

- A further possibility is that the light-like and space-like 3-surfaces carry vanishing induced Kähler fields and represent surfaces in M
^{4}× Y^{2}, where Y^{2}is Lagrangian sub-manifold of CP_2 carrying vanishing Kähler form. The interior of space-time surface could in principle carry a non-vanishing Kähler form. In this case weak form of self-duality cannot hold true. This however implies that the Kähler magnetic fluxes vanish identically as circulations of Kähler gauge potential. The non-integrable phase factors defined by electroweak gauge potentials would however define non-trivial classical Wilson loops. Also electromagnetic field would do so. It would be therefore possible to imagine vacuum expectation value of Wilson loop for given quantum state. Exponent of Kähler action would define for non-vacuum extremals the weighting. For 4-D vacuum extremals this exponent is trivial and one might imagine of using imaginary exponent of electroweak Chern-Simons action. Whether the restriction to vacuum extremals in the definition of vacuum expectations of electroweak Wilson loops could define general enough invariants for braid cobordisms remains an open question. - The quantum expectation values for Wilson loops are non-Abelian generalizations of exponentials for the expectation values of Kähler magnetic fluxes. The classical color field is proportional to the induced Kähler form and its holonomy is Abelian which raises the question whether the non-Abelian Wilson loops for classical color gauge field could be expressible in terms of Kähler magnetic fluxes.

As already noticed, the description of 2-knots seems to necessitate the generalization of gauge field to 3-form and the introduction of a gerbe structure. This seems to be possible in TGD framework. Classical color gauge fields are proportional to the products B_{A}= H_{A}J of the Hamiltonians of color isometries and of Kähler form and the closed 3-form F_{A}= dB_{A}= dH_{A}∧ J could serve as a colored 3-form defining the analog of U(1) gauge field. What would be interesting that color would make F non-vanishing. The "circulation" h_{A}= ∫ H_{A}J over a closed 2-surface is transforms covariatly under symplectic transformations of CP_{2}, whose Hamiltonians can be assigned to irreps of SU(3): just the commutator of Hamiltonians defined by Poisson bracket appears in the infiitesimal transformation. One could hope that the expectation values for the exponents of the fluxes of B_{A} over 2-knots could define the invariants able to catch 2-knottedness in TGD framework. The exponent defining Wilson loop would be replaced with exp(iQ^{A} h_{A}), where Q^{A} denote color charges acting as operators on particles involved.

Quantum expectation means in TGD framework functional integral over the symplectic orbits of partonic 2-surfaces plus 4-D tangent space data assigned to the upper and lower boundaries of CD. Suppose that holography fixes the space-like 3-surfaces at the ends of CD and light-like orbits of partonic 2-surfaces. The braids and the stringy space-time sheets could be fixed using a representation in terms of space-time coordinates so that the representation would be always the same but the imbedding varies as also the values of the exponent of Kähler function, of the Wilson loop, and of its 2-D generalization. The functional integral over symplectic transforms of 3-surfaces implies that Wilson loop and its 2-D generalization varies. The conjectured slicing of space-time surface by string world sheets conforms with the that both Wilson loop and its 2-D generalization are actually fixed by the dynamics. One can ask whether the presence of 2-D analog of Wilson loop has a direct physical meaning bringing into almost topological stringy dynamics associated with color quantum numbers and coding explicit information about space-time interior and topology of field lines so that color dynamics would also have interpretation as a theory of 2-knots.

** 4. Summing up**

Let us summarize the ideas discussed above.

- Instead of knots, links, and braids one could study knot and link cobordisms, that is their dynamical evolutions concretizable in terms of dance metaphor and in terms of interacting string world sheets. Each space-like braid strand can have purely internal knotting and braid strands can be linked. TGD could allow to identify uniquely both space-like and time-like braid strands and thus also the stringy world sheets more or less uniquely and it could be that the dynamics induces automatically the temporary cutting of braid strands when knot is opened violently so that a hole is generated. Gerbe gauge potentials defined by classical color gauge fields could make also possible to characterize 2-knottedness in symplectic invariant manner in terms of color gauge fluxes over 2-surfaces.
The weak form of electric-magnetic duality would reduce the situation to almost topological QFT in general case with topological invariance replaced with symplectic one which corresponds to the fixing of the values of non-quantum fluctuating zero modes in quantum TGD. In the vacuum sector it would be possible to have the counterparts of Wilson loops weighted by 3-D electroweak Chern-Simons action defined bythe induced spinor connection.

- One could also leave TGD framework and define invariants of braid cobordisms and 2-D analogs of braids as vacuum expectations of Wilson loops using Chern-Simons action assigned to 3-surfaces at which space-like and time-like braid strands end. The presence of light-like and space-like 3-surfaces assignable to causal diamonds could be assumed also now.

What is interesting that twistorial considerations lead to a conjecture that 4-D space-time surfaces in 8-D imbedding space have a dual description in terms of certain 6-D homomorphic surfaces which are sphere bundles in 12-D CP_{3}× CP_{3} and effectively 4-D. This suggests a connection between descriptions based on topological strings in 6-D space and Wilson loops in 4-D space-time. Could it really be that these completely trivial observations of a mad Finnish scientist are not a standard part of knot theory?

**Addition**. I found from web an article by Dror Bar-Natan with title Khovanov's homology for tangles and cobordisms. The article states that the Khovanov Homology theory for knots and links generalizes to tangles, cobordisms and 2-knots. The articles says nothing explicit about Wilson loops but talks about topological QFTs.

**Addition**. An article of Witten about his physical approach to Khovanov homology has appeared in arXiv. The article is more or less abracadabra for anyone not working with M-theory but the basic idea is simple. Witten reformulates 3-D Chern-Simons theory as a path integral for N=4 super YM theory in the 4-D half space W×R. This allows him to use dualities and bring in the machinery of M-theory and branes. The basic structure of TGD forces a highly analogous appproach: replace 3-surfaces with 4-surfaces, consider knot cobordisms and also 2-knots, introduce gerbes, and be happy with symplectic instead of topological QFT, which might more or less be synonymous with TGD as almost topological QFT. Symplectic QFT would obviously make possible much more refined description of knots.
This posting can be found also as a more organized article Could one generalize braid invariant defined by vacuum expectation of Wilson loop to an invariant of braid cobordisms and of 2-knots?. See also the new chapter Knots andTGD of "TGD: Physics as Infinite-Dimensional Geometry".

## 2 comments:

Thanks a lot for your research and contribution as I have quoted about your research works in my blog post and correlated it with my research works on consciousness.

How Quantum Schwa of A'-0-A' Helps in Quantum Bit, Flip, Phase Error Detection, Correction with IBM Researches: Quantum Computing, Education and Research: Quantum Theory of DNA, TGD and TQC : Gurmukhi and Be Happy Philselfologically 167

Thanks!

Thank you for links.

Matti

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