This picture means a breakthrough in the understanding of quantum TGD as a rigorous mathematical theory able to contribute also to mathematics itself and is in accordance with the visions about quantum TGD as almost topological QFT, physics as as an infinite-D geometry, and physics as generalized number theory. The overall important "almost" means that one has algebraic geometry rather than mere topology. I attach a piece of abstract of the new chapter containing the formulation. The entire abstract appears in earlier posting.

In algebraic geometry the notion of variety defined by algebraic equation is very general: all number fields are allowed. One of the challenges is to define the counterparts of homology and cohomology groups for them. The notion of cohomology giving rise also to homology if Poincare duality holds true is central. The number of various cohomology theories has inflated and one of the basic challenges to find a sufficiently general approach allowing to interpret various cohomology theories as variations of the same motive as Grothendieck, who is the pioneer of the field responsible for many of the basic notions and visions, expressed it.

Cohomology requires a definition of integral for forms for all number fields. In p-adic context the lack of well-ordering of p-adic numbers implies difficulties both in homology and cohomology since the notion of boundary does not exist in topological sense. The notion of definite integral is problematic for the same reason. This has led to a proposal of reducing integration to Fourier analysis working for symmetric spaces but requiring algebraic extensions of p-adic numbers and an appropriate definition of the p-adic symmetric space. The definition is not unique and the interpretation is in terms of the varying measurement resolution.

The notion of infinite prime has gradually turned out to be more and more important for quantum TGD. Infinite primes, integers, and rationals form a hierarchy completely analogous to a hierarchy of second quantization for a super-symmetric arithmetic quantum field theory. The simplest infinite primes representing elementary particles at given level are in one-one correspondence with many-particle states of the previous level. More complex infinite primes have interpretation in terms of bound states.

- What makes infinite primes interesting from the point of view of algebraic geometry is that infinite primes, integers and rationals at the n:th level of the hierarchy are in 1-1 correspondence with rational functions of n arguments. One can solve the roots of associated polynomials and perform a root decomposition of infinite primes at various levels of the hierarchy and assign to them Galois groups acting as automorphisms of the field extensions of polynomials defined by the roots coming as restrictions of the basic polynomial to planes x
_{n}=0, x_{n}=x_{n-1}=0, etc... - These Galois groups are suggested to define non-commutative generalization of homotopy and homology theories and non-linear boundary operation for which a geometric interpretation in terms of the restriction to lower-dimensional plane is proposed. The Galois group G
_{k}would be analogous to the relative homology group relative to the plane x_{k-1}=0 representing boundary and makes sense for all number fields also geometrically. One can ask whether the invariance of the complex of groups under the permutations of the orders of variables in the reduction process is necessary. Physical interpretation suggests that this is not the case and that all the groups obtained by the permutations are needed for a full description. - The algebraic counterpart of boundary map would map the elements of G
_{k}identified as analog of homotopy group to the commutator group [G_{k-2},G_{k-2}] and therefore to the unit element of the abelianized group defining cohomology group. In order to obtains something analogous to the ordinary homology and cohomology groups one must however replaces Galois groups by their group algebras with values in some field or ring. This allows to define the analogs of homotopy and homology groups as their abelianizations. Cohomotopy, and cohomology would emerge as duals of homotopy and homology in the dual of the group algebra. - That the algebraic representation of the boundary operation is not expected to be unique turns into blessing when on keeps the TGD as almost topological QFT vision as the guide line. One can include all boundary homomorphisms subject to the condition that the anticommutator δ
^{i}_{k}δ^{j}_{k-1}+δ^{j}_{k}δ^{i}_{k-1}maps to the group algebra of the commutator group [G_{k-2},G_{k-2}]. By adding dual generators one obtains what looks like a generalization of anticommutative fermionic algebra and what comes in mind is the spectrum of quantum states of a SUSY algebra spanned by bosonic states realized as group algebra elements and fermionic states realized in terms of homotopy and cohomotopy and in abelianized version in terms of homology and cohomology. Galois group action allows to organize quantum states into multiplets of Galois groups acting as symmetry groups of physics. Poincare duality would map fermionic creation operators to annihilation operators and vice versa and the counterpart of pairing of k:th and n-k:th homology groups would be inner product analogous to that given by Grassmann integration.The interpretation in terms of fermions turns however to be wrong and the more appropriate interpretation is in terms of Dolbeault cohomology applying to forms with homomorphic and antiholomorphic indices. - The intuitive idea that the Galois group is analogous to 1-D homotopy group which is the only non-commutative homotopy group, the structure of infinite primes analogous to the braids of braids of braids of ... structure, the fact that Galois group is a subgroup of permutation group, and the possibility to lift permutation group to a braid group suggests a representation as flows of 2-D plane with punctures giving a direct connection with topological quantum field theories for braids, knots and links. The natural assumption is that the flows are induced from transformations of the symplectic group acting on δ M
^{2}_{+/-}× CP_{2}representing quantum fluctuating degrees of freedom associated with WCW ("world of classical worlds"). Discretization of WCW and cutoff in the number of fermion modes would be due to the finite measurement resolution. The outcome would be rather far reaching: finite measurement resolution would allow to construct WCW spinor fields explicitly using the machinery of number theory and algebraic geometry. - A connection with operads is highly suggestive. What is nice from TGD perspective is that the non-commutative generalization homology and homotopy has direct connection to the basic structure of quantum TGD almost topological quantum theory where braids are basic objects and also to hyper-finite factors of type II
_{1}. This notion of Galois group makes sense only for the algebraic varieties for which coefficient field is algebraic extension of some number field. Braid group approach however allows to generalize the approach to completely general polynomials since the braid group make sense also when the ends points for the braid are not algebraic points (roots of the polynomial).

This construction would realize the number theoretical, algebraic geometrical, and topological content in the construction of quantum states in TGD framework in accordance with TGD as almost TQFT philosophy, TGD as an infinite-D geometry, and TGD as a generalized number theory visions.

For more details see the new chapter Infinite Primes and Motives of "TGD as Generalized Number Theory" or the article with same title.

## 1 comment:

Two links,

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/06/dna-mathematics/

Synthetic Biologists Use DNA to Calculate Square Roots

computer scientists, who have been turning everything from RNA molecules to entire bacterial colonies into logic gates. So far, however, these systems have been relatively small-scale, with only a handful of gates linked up in a series. Today’s issue of Science leapfrogs past the small-scale demonstrations, and shows that a form of DNA computing can perform a calculation with up to 130 different types of DNA molecules involved.

consider the system’s limitations: all those molecules were used to simply perform square roots on four-bit numbers, and each calculation took over five hours. Although they’re not especially useful for general purpose calculations, these DNA-based logic gates do have the advantage of being able to integrate into biological systems, taking their input from a cell and feeding the output into biochemical processes.

you can stick a tail on an output molecule that acts as an input molecule for another gate. You can also make sinks for different outputs (the authors call these molecules “fuel”). They can base-pair with an output in such a way that it is eliminated from further interactions, thus changing the dynamics of the situation. Multiple inputs and outputs can also interact at the same gate at once.

http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/02/03/rsif.2010.0729.full

and

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/06/hot-bodies-sink-faster/

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