In TGD framework the result is not so counter-intuitive.
- p-Adic length scale hypothesis implies that elementary particles correspond to p-adic primes characterizing the effective p-adic topology assignable to them. If cognition is accepted to be part of world order then one must generalize physics by gluing together real and various p-adic physics and p-adic space-time sheets are correlates for cognition. The basic hypothesis emerging from the comparison of the results of p-adic mass calculations with experimental numbers is that physically preferred p-adic primes correspond to primes p≈ 2k, k positive integer. has as preferred values primes and Mersenne primes. Also Gaussian Mersennes assignable to Gaussian (complex) integers appear an define important p-adic length relevant to living matter (scales between cell membrane thickness and cell nucleus size. One can also consider twin pairs for $k$ and these will be indeed discussed below.
- If one accepts the idea that elementary particles correspond to primes, one can turn the wheel around and ask whether physics might help in understanding the distribution of primes. Elementary particles form bound states. These bound states would correspond to twin pairs or larger clusters of primes near to each other. If this is the case then one can make number theoretical conjectures based on approximate scale invariance. Twin prime pairs are analogous to bound stats of particles and have some minimal size and the number of pairs with this size is infinite just like the number of twin primes. Same applies to bound states of arbitrary many twin primes. Besides twin primes there are, triple primes, etc. and also they form bound states. Same conjecture applies to the number of them having minimal size.
First some background about twins and p-adic length scales hypothesis.
- From Wolfram Mathworld ) one finds the following list of twin pairs. The first few twin primes are of form n± 1 for n=4, 6, 12, 18, 30, 42, 60, 72, 102, 108, 138, 150, 180, 192, 198, 228, 240, 270, 282, .... Explicitly, these are (3, 5), (5, 7), (11, 13), (17, 19), (29, 31), (41, 43), ... . All twin primes except (3, 5) are of the form $6n± 1$.
- From this one can calculate p-adic length scales L(k), k=n± 1 and mass scales assuming p≈ 2k. It is convenient to use electrons Compton length in the scale involved rather than p-adic length scales proper (as a matter fact, I confused for a long time these two scales). By Lp=L(k)∝ p1/2≈ 2k/2 one has Le(k)= 2(k-151)/2Le(151), where scaled up electron Compton length Le(151)= 2(151-127)/2=12)Le(127) can be also written as Le(151) ≈ L(151)/(5+x)1/2, where x<1 (most naturally very near to zero) is a parameter left free by uncertainties of the model behind p-adic mass calculations.
The reference scale can be taken as Le(k=151)≈ 10 nm, which is cell membrane thickness. Note that this suggests that Cooper pairs of electrons and perhaps even their light and dark variants are important. Macroscopic quantum phases of dark electrons are highly suggestive. The Gaussian integer (1+i)kG=151-1 defines Gaussian Mersenne as also kG= 157,163,167. Such a large number Gaussian Mersennes in so small an integer interval can be regarded as a number theoretical miracle and must relate to the very special physics of living matter systems. The natural guess is that both p-adically scaled up and dark variants of strong interaction physics, weak physics, and electromagnetism appear in these scales varying up to the size of cell nucleus.
- p-Adic mass scales are obtained from electron mass me= .5 MeV by the scaling m(k)= 2(127-k)/2 × me/(5+x)1/2. It seems physically more natural to use as the mass scale also the mass me(k) of electron if it were be characterized by k.
- n=102 defines pair (101,103). I have earlier assigned these p-adic prime to to b and c quark. One has me(101)= 4 GeV and me(103)= 2 GeV.
- n=108 defines pair (107,109). k=107 is assigned with hadronic space-time sheets and with proton. The mass scales are mk(107)=512 MeV and mk(109)=256 MeV. k=109 could be assigned with deuteron. An interesting question is twin pair is relevant for the understanding of also QCD. The current masses of u and d quark (with the mass assignable to the magnetic body not included) are rather light - in the range 5-20 MeV. This means that their Compton lengths are much longer than those of hadron itself! The interpretation is that they are associated with the magnetic body of the hadron, say proton. This could explain the anomalous finding that the charge radius of proton seems to be slightly larger than it should be.
- n=138 gives rise to pair (137,139). The pair defines atomic length scales possibly highly relevant for the condensed matter and molecular physics. The length scale pair is (Le(137)=.79 Angstroms and Le(139)=1.57 Angstroms. A new physics in these length scales is strongly suggestive if p-adic length scale hypothesis is accepted.
- n=150 gives rise to the pair (149,151) corresponding to the thicknesses of lipid layer of cell membrane and cell membrane itself. The scales are Le(149)=5 nm and Le(151)=10 nm. Especially the scale of 10 nm appears very often in bio-systems as a basic scale: for instance, the thickness of DNA coil is of this order of magnitude.
- n=180 defines pair (179,181) differing by a scaling by 215≈ .512× 106 from the pair defined by cell membrane. The scales are Le(179)=2.5 mm and Le(179)=5 mm and might relate to binary columnar structures appearing in the cortex (orientation and ocular dominance columns). The thickness of cortex is of order 2-3 mm.
- n=192 defines pair (191,193) related by scaling with 2×106 to lipid-cell membrane pair. The scales are Le(191)=1 cm and Le(179).
- n=270 defines pair (269,271) related by scaling by scaling 1018 to cell membrane system. One has Le(269)=5 Mkm and Le(271)=10 Mkm. These scales are larger than the size scale .7 Mkm defined by solar radius but smaller than astronomical unit AU defined size scales for planetary orbital radii. In the model of solar system based on the notion of gravitational Planck constant Earth corresponds to n=5 Bohr orbit with radii proportional to n2. The radius of n=1 orbit would correspond to the length scale AU/52≈ 5.98 Mkm rather near to Le(169) so that the size scale of gravitational atom would be in question. The pair of atomic length scales (137,139) would be replaced with its gravitational variant (269,271). The interpretation proposed earlier is that the invisible gravitational orbitals correspond to dark matter around which no visible matter has condensed (yet).
- n=282 defines pair (281,283) related by scaling 32 to the previous pair. The scales are 160 Mkm and 320 Mk. The radius of the orbit of Earth defines astronomical unit AU=149.60 Mkm and again the order of magnitude is same.
There is also an exceptional twin pair not considered above. It is formed by primes 2 and 3. Recently I have been developing a model of music harmony based among other things on the interplay of these primes. Octaves in music correspond to powers of 2 and under octave equivalence the notes of 12-note scale constructed by using quint rotation correspond to powers of 3/2 of equivalently of 3. One has both 2-padic and p-adic aspects. The natural distance for notes corresponds to the number of quints related the notes in quint rotation. This hypothesis allows to understand basic facts about harmony. Some time ago I commented about an article that I received from Jose Diez Faixat (see this) claiming what in TGD framework translates to the statement that 3-adicity is realized at the level of biological time scales. This conforms with the TGD based icosahedral model for biosystems suggesting a close relationship between twelve note scale and aminoacids and also leads to a proposal for icosahedral realization of genetic code (see this).