Friday, November 12, 2021

About systems that apparently defy Newton's third law

Gary Ehlenber sent a very interesting Quanta Magazine link telling about the work of Vincenzo Vitelli (see this).
  1. The topic is extremely interesting but the popular article  produces a lot of confusion by introducing misleading metaphors for  Newton's law of reciprocity stating only that the total conserved quantities are conserved for an  N-particle system. If  conservation fails in a 2-particle system, there must be a third system present - magnetic body (MB) in the TGD framework. 
  2. Also the claim that energy is not conserved, is simply wrong. A more precise statement is that thermodynamic equilibria are not reached in some systems and this together with the existence of non-equilibrium systems suggests that the arrow of time is not always the same - zero energy ontology (ZEO).  If one  accepts  the notions of MB and ZEO, there is no need to give up conservation laws.
  3. The importance of singular points - I would call them critical or quantum critical points - is also emphasized. At these points the conservation laws would be violated. TGD interpretation is different: at these points the transfer of conserved quantities between MB and the system considered becomes important.
  4. Polariton-exciton systems are mentioned as a starting point of the work of Vitello.  This system allows Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs)  at room temperature but energy feed is required. This is something totally new. TGD predicts  forced Bose-Einstein condensates and I have discussed polariton-exciton BECs as an example. 
> The topic is highly interesting from the TGD point of view for several reasons.  
  1. The  notion of magnetic body (MB) appears as a third system in non-resiprocal situations  and quite concretely can lead to small violation of energy and momentum conservation although these violations are small because MB uses energy for control purposes, biological body does the hard work. 
  2. Number theoretic TGD predicts hierarchy of Planck constants. MB carries heff>h phases. This means a larger algebraic complexity, kind of IQ, and makes it the "boss". Also the longer length scale of quantum coherence typically proportional to heff implies this.    The energy of a particle increases with heff and one must have a metabolic energy feed to  preserve the heff distribution from flattening by spontaneous reductions of heff values.  The formation of bound states can however compensate for the increase of energy when heff is increased.

    Bound state formation could be universally based on this and one ends up to quite concrete proposal for how bound states are formed as what I call Galois singlets.  4-momenta of fundamental fermions are algebraic integers for given extensions of rationals labelling the space-time region and Galois confinement says that the bound states have integer valued 4-momenta: this guarantees periodic boundary conditions.

  3. > In the  TGD framework, the hierarchy of heff phases behaving like dark matter  predicts that driven superconductivity (and various BECs) is possible. Cooper pairs and also charges with heff>h give rise to non-dissipating supra currents  at MB.   The problem is that heff is reduced spontaneously. For Cooper pairs binding energy stabilizes the pairs  since the energy of the pair reduces below the energy for free charges. This works below critical temperature. Above critical temperature one can feed energy to the system so that  the equilibrium becomes flow equilibrium. This applies to various Bose-Einstein condensates, in particular polariton-exciton condensate. 
  4. ZEO predicts that in an ordinary  ("big") state function reduction  time reversal occurs. This solves the basic problems of quantum measurement theory but also forces to generalize thermodynamics and leads to a new view about non-equilibrium systems since time reversal means that dissipation occurs in reverse time direction for a subsystem and looks like self-organization for the outsider.  

    In particular, one must give up the idea about stable equilibrium states as energy minima.   If the subsystem is ending up  to such it can make a BSFR changing the arrow of time and from the point of view of  the outsider starts to extract energy from the environment. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) forces this since in thermal equilibrium information does not increase anymore.  In biology homeostasis is based on this. 

  5. Singular points as analogs of critical points are mentioned in the article. At these points one cannot distinguish between two phases. In the TGD framework quantum critical points are points at which long range fluctuations are possible and they correspond to large values of effective Planck constant heff at the MB of the system labelling phase behaving like dark matter. The phase transition creating these phases means that conservation laws are apparently violated. This provides a test for the TGD vision.
  6. Information itself is a central notion missing from  standard physics. Number theoretic physics involving p-adic number fields provides correlates for cognition and the formal  p-adic  analog of entropy can be negative and is interpreted as a measure for information associated with entanglement of 2 systems (2-particle level)  whereas ordinary entropy is related to the loss of information  about either entangled  state (1-particle level).  The sum of two Shannon entropies is by NMP non-negative and increases as the dimension of extensions of rationals increases. This implies evolution as an increase of algebraic complexity, of information sources, and quantum coherence scales. 
See the article TGD as it is towards end of 2021 and the book and the chapters of the book TGD and Condensed Matter. For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

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