Findings and their proposed interpretation
Elliptic galaxies were studied. The reason is that they do note generate stars anymore and accretion, which is regarded as the basic mechanism for the growth of galactic black holes, should not occur. The time span of the study was nine billion years. It was found that the masses of the gigantic galactic blackholes, which extend from 106 to 109 solar masses, were 7-20 times higher than expected if the mass growth had been due to accretion of stars to the blackhole or by merging with other blackholes.
The proposed interpretation was that blackholes carry dark energy and this energy has increased. The conclusion was that nothing has to be added to our picture of the universe to account for vacuum energy. Einstein's equations with a cosmological term were assumed to be a fundamental description and that blackholes are responsible for the cosmological constant.
In general relativity (GRT), one must give up the conservation of energy and it is difficult to propose any alternative for this proposal without leaving the framework of GRT. If one has a theory of gravitation for which Poincare invariance is exact, the situation changes completely. One must ask where the blackholes get their mass. Is it dark energy and/or mass or is it dark energy/mass transformed to ordinary mass?
TGD view of the situation
In the TGD framework Poincare invariance is exact so that the situation indeed changes.
- TGD approach (see this, this, this, and this) forces to ask whether the objects that we call galactic blackholes, or at least those assignable to quasars, could be actually galactic white hole-like objects (GWOs), which emit energy to their environment and give rise to the formation of the ordinary matter of galaxies. The should exist a source feeding mass and energy to GWOs.
The source of mass of the GWO would be the energy of a cosmic string or more generally a cosmic string thickened to a flux tube but with large enough string tension. The dark energy would consist of volume energy characterized by a scale dependent cosmological constant \Lambda and Kähler magnetic energy.
- Cosmic strings with 2-D M4 projection are indeed unstable against a phase transition transforming them to monopole flux tubes with 4-D M4 projection. This transformation reduces their gigantic string tension and leads to a liberation of energy leading to the formation of the ordinary matter of the galaxy.
The monopole flux tubes can carry dark matter having a large value of the effective Planck constant heff. Whether one has heff=h or even heff=nh0<h for the cosmic string (or the initial object) so that heff would increase in the phase transition thickening of the cosmic string to the flux tube, has remained an open question. If the value increase, the quasar white hole would be apart from the arrow of time in many respects similar to a blackhole.
The simplest assumption is that the cosmic string is either pure energy, or if it also carries matter, the matter has heff=nh0 ≤ h. The energy liberated in the increase of the thickness of the cosmic string (or flux tube with a very small thickness) produces matter and provides the energy needed to increase heffso that the the blackhole matter should be dark.
- The values of the ℏeff could correspond to the values of ℏgr= GMm/β0, where M is the mass of the galactic blackhole, m is the particle mass, and β0=v0/c<1 is velocity parameter. These values of heff are gigantic . The gravitational Compton length Λgr is GM/β0= rS/2β0 and for β0=1 it is equal to one half of the Scwartschild radius of the galactic blackhole, which in the range (106--109)× rS(Sun), rS(Sun)= 3 km. Note that the distance of Earth to Sun is AU=.15 × 109 km and is in this range.
The gravitational Bohr radius for Sun in the Nottale model with β0≈ 2-11 is obtained from the radius of Earth's orbit with principal quantum number n=5 as a0,gr= AU/5≈ .6× 107 km (see this). The gravitational Compton length for the Sagittarius A* is Λgr= rS/2= .62 × 107 km for β0=1 and is equal to the solar Bohr radius! Is this a mere coincidence or is there strong coupling between the galactic quantum dynamics and solar quantum dynamics and does this coincidence reflect the very special role of the Earth in the galactic biosphere?
In the TGD inspired quantum biology, living matter is controlled by phases with a large value of ℏgr, in particular those associated with the gravitational flux tubes of Earth and Sun and quantum gravitation plays a key role in metabolism. This, and the fact that heff/h0 serves as a kind of IQ for living matter, strongly suggests that galactic blackholes are living super intelligent systems controlling matter in very long scales.
- Galaxies would have formed as local tangles of long cosmic strings. The simplest cosmic string is an extremely thin 3-D object identifiable as a Cartesian product of complex 2-sub-manifold of CP2 homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere S2 of CP2 and of a string-like object X2 in Minkowski space. This object can form a local tangle and its M4 projection would be thickened in this process.
In the formation of galaxy the string tension would decrease and part of the dark energy and matter would transform to ordinary matter forming a galaxy. Also stars and planets would be formed by a similar mechanism. The process transforming dark energy and matter to ordinary matter would be the TGD counterpart for the decay of the inflaton field (see this) and drive accelerating cosmic expansion.
Galactic dark matter, as opposed to dark matter as heff>h phases, is identified as the dark energy of the long cosmic string containing galaxies along it as local tangles, and predicts correctly the flat velocity spectrum. Also ordinary stars would have flux tube spaghettis in their core but they would not be volume filling.
- The TGD interpretation does not imply that all dark matter would be associated with galactic blackholes as the article suggests. This is as it should be. The mass of the galactic blackhole is only a small fraction of the visible mass of the galaxy and dark energy is about 70 % of the total mass of the Universe. The long cosmic strings having galaxies as tangles contain most of the dark energy. TGD only predicts that most of the mass of the galactic blackhole, be it dark or ordinary, comes from dark energy of the cosmic string.
- The TGD view of "cold fusion" (see this, this, this) is as a dark fusion giving rise to dark proton sequences at monopole flux tubes followed by their transformation to ordinary nuclei with heff=h. Most of the nuclear binding energy would be liberated and induced an explosion generating the expanding flux tube bubble or jet. This mechanism plays a central role in the model for the formation of various astrophysical structures.
- The TGD inspired model for the star formation (see this) would explain the formation of stars of galaxies in terms of explosive emissions of magnetic bubbles consisting of monopole flux tubes, whose dark matter transforms to ordinary matter by the proposed mechanism and gives rise to stars. Galactic jets could correspond to the emissions of magnetic bubbles. Prestellar objects would be formed by this process. Ordinary nuclear fusion would start above critical temperature lead to the generation of population II stars.
- GWOs can eject dark matter magnetic bubbles creating transforming to ordinary matter such as stars: this suggests the term GWO. They calso "eat" ordinary matter, such as stars, which suggests the term GBO. But this is possible also with their time reversals.
- The long cosmic string could serve in the case of spiral galaxies as a metabolic source, which continually feeds matter to GWO/GBO so that it could remain dark and increase in size. In the case of elliptic galaxies, the mass growth by "eating" matter from the environment has stopped. In this case the cosmic string could be closed and imply that the mass of GWO/GBO does not grow anymore. One could say that elliptic galaxies are dead.
- This would suggest that BOs carry at the monopole flux tubes only ordinary matter with heff=h or even heff<h. In the TGD inspired model for for stellar BOs, the thickness of the flux tube would be given by proton Compton length (see this) and the flux tubes would be long proton sequences as analogs of nuclei. Therefore they would contain matter. In zero energy ontology (ZEO), one BOs could transform to their time reversals (WOs).
- Are genuine GBOs as time reversals of GWOs possible? In zero energy ontology (ZEO), one can imagine that a "big" state function reduction (BSFR) in the galactic scale takes place and GWO transforms to a GBO. If the cosmic strings have heff=h or even heff<h, a possible interpretation is that the magnetic flux tubes carrying dark matter have transformed during the stellar evolution to those carrying only matter having heff≤ h. In BSFR they would become initial states for a time reversed process leading to generation of galaxies in the reverse time direction. Galaxies would be "breathing". GWOs could be also formed by a fusion of stellar WOs as time reversals of stellar BOs.
- This allows to imagine an evolutionary process in which each evolutionary step n gives rise to flux tubes, whose thickness is larger than the initial flux tube thickness. Also the value of heff of the final state of a given step could increase gradually.
The differences with respect to the previous initial state would be the arrow of time, the thickness of the flux tubes, and the fact that they contain matter, and possibly also the value of heff, which could increase.
- GWOs can also "eat" ordinary matter. The value of heff for ordinary matter could increase: the energy needed to increase heff would come from the energy liberated as gravitational binding energy is generated in the process. Therefore GWOs could look like ordinary galactic blackholes although the main source of energy would be cosmic string.
- If one can assign to quasars genuine GWOs, their mass would come from the dark energy and matter of the cosmic string rather than from the environment by the usual mechanisms. This conforms with the above described findings of (see this).
Objects known as galactic black holes would consist of a thickened cosmic string, which suggests an explosive expansion generating heff>h dark matter so that the interpretation as GWOs would make sense. If star formation near the galactic blackhole takes place, this could be due to an explosive magnetic bubble emission from GWO identified as a monopole flux tube bundle carrying dark matter.
- Star generation near the galactic blackhole would support the interpretation of the galactic blackhole. The region near the galactic blackhole contains a lot of stars. Have they entered this region from more distant regions or are they produced by the mission of magnetic bubbles from the galactic black hole? Star formation near a galactic blackhole associated with a dwarf galaxy (this) has been reported.
There is also evidence for a fast moving galactic blackhole-like object leaving a trail of newborn stars behind it (this). If a GWO emitting magnetic bubbles is in question, the motion could be a recoil effect due to this emission.
There is also evidence for a galaxy, which consists almost entirely (99.9 %) of dark matter (this). Could the explanation be as a passive galactic whitehole as a flux tube tangle, which has sent only very few magnetic bubbles?
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.