Wednesday, February 08, 2023

Population III stars in the TGD framework

I received link to an interesting popular article (see this) telling about a possible detection of population III stars (see this), which are believed to have emerged in the first stage of the stellar formation and generating only "non-metallic" nuclei, which by definition are not heavier than 4He.

Wang s team analyzed spectroscopy data for more than 2,000 of JWST's targets. One is a distant galaxy seen as it appeared just 620 million years after the Big Bang. According to the researchers, the galaxy is split into two pieces.

The analysis showed that one half seems to have the key signature of helium II mixed with light from other elements, potentially pointing to a hybrid population of thousands of Population III and other stars. Spectroscopy of the second half of the galaxy has yet to be done, but its brightness hints at a more Population III-rich environment.

Population III stars

If the standard model for the formation of stars population III stars would represent the first generation of stars. They should exist because we exist. The problem is that population III stars containing only elements not heavier than 4He have not been observed.

Is the standard model for the star formation wrong so that population III stars would not exist at all? Or have we not been able to observe them. Now evidence for the existence of these stars have been reported (see this) but the evidence is controversial.

Let us list some properties that population III stars of the standard model should have.

  1. In the standard model of star formation, the very hot gas prevents the formation of small stars. Population III stars would have immense sizes 102-105 times the ordinary star size. By their large mass they would deplete the hydrogen gas very rapidly and would have a very short lifetime. Large volume of hydrogen and helium gas is available in the early universe so that this option looks plausible in the early universe.
  2. The population III stars would have a high surface temperature of about 50,000 degrees Celsius, compared to the temperature of 5,500 degrees for the Sun. This provides a possible explanation for the high luminosity of very early galaxies. In the TGD framework, the concentration of irradiation to flux tubes connecting astrophysical objects would explain the high luminosity.
  3. The signature of the population III stars would be He II emission lines from a gas surrounding star when UV light from the hot surface of the star ionizes the He atoms of the environment (note that "II" refers to singly ionized 4He rather than the "He II" appearing as superfluid phase in the model of helium superfluidity).

    The heat or explosions of population III stars could have caused reionization of the Universe. Evidence for them was found at about .62 billion years after BB. CMB temperature was at that time roughly 1 meV.

  4. The ionization energy of 4He is about 24.5 eV and in the UV region. Solar surface temperature .55 eV and by a factor 1/100 lower. The surface temperature of population III stars is estimated to be 55 eV. The He II emission would not originate in stars themselves but created when energetic photons from the star's hot surface are absorbed by the gas surrounding the star.
Are population III stars needed at all in the TGD framework?

The TGD picture about formation of stars (see this, this, and this suggests that population III stars are not needed at all but are replaced with prestellar objects in which dark fusion followed by transformation of dark nuclei to ordinary nuclei leads to a prestellar object which eventually reaches the ignition temperature for ordinary nuclear fusion.

This allows to escape the problematic assumption about giant size population III stars and explains the apparent mixture of population III and population II stars as well as the Helium II lines appearing at some stage of the heating of the prestellar object. The TGD based model relies on the following general assumptions.

  1. The notion of local Bib-Bang with local values of Hubble constant H, cosmological constant Λ, age a, and velocity parameter v0 associated with the gravitational Planck constant. This picture is suggested by the vision of how the monopole flux tubes carrying dark energy and dark matter transformed to ordinary matter in explosive events analogous to local big bangs.

    Large local values of H and Λ are needed and expected. Scaling gives naive estimates and they are expected to be too small.

    Temperature of the local big bang higher than that of the environment. Light-cone proper time aloc assignable to local CD approaches cosmic time a for very large values of a since at this limit it does not depend on the position of the tip.

  2. The local Big-Bang is analogous to a supernova explosion and throws out a magnetic monopole flux tube tangle, magnetic buble, with dark matter transforming to ordinary matter.
The transformation of dark matter at monopole flux tubes to ordinary nuclei is based on the TGD view of "cold fusion" as being due to the formation of dark nuclei which transform to ordinary nuclei (see this, this, this and this).
  1. In the TGD framework, dark fusion would precede ordinary fusion. Dark protons and neutrons would fuse to dark nuclei at monopole flux tubes and transforme to ordinary nuclei and liberate practically all nuclear binding energy leading to the heating and eventually initiation of ordinary nuclear fusions.
  2. There is no need to assume that dark fusion stopped at 4He so that for the simplest option population III stars are not needed at all. The pre-stellar objects as predecessors of the ordinary stars could have been obtained by dark fusion and gradually the cold fusion would have led to the ignition temperature of ordinary fusion and population II stars would have formed. The observed He II lines originate from these pre-stellar objects?
  3. Dark fusion could have also produced elements heavier than 4He. This could allow us to understand the production of elements heavier than Iron as being due to dark fusion. Also the anomalies related to the abundances of some light elements could be understood. Dark fusion would proceed outside stars. Also the explosion producing supernova shells as dark magnetic bubbles involving dark fusion could explain the production of elements heavier than Fe in terms of dark fusion. Also the reported identification of heavy elements in the claimed "cold fusion" could be explained in this way (see this and this).
Consider now a more detailed mechanism for the formation of stars. If the mechanism is the same as for the star formation in the Local Bubble, one expects that the stars are formed at the Local Bubble as dark matter transforms to ordinary matter. This would lead to formation of local pre-stellar objects, which in some cases would reach the ignition temperature for ordinary nuclear fusion.
  1. I have also proposed that planets were formed by the same mechanism. One can however argue that the idea that all dark matter at the magnetic bubble of radius defined by the distance to the Sun would have concentrated to form a single planet, is implausible.
  2. This leads to a crazy quantum idea of quantum explosion inspired by the fact that the quantum coherence length can be of the same order of magnitude as the distance to the Sun. The quantum states could indeed be like the quantum states of, say hydrogen atoms in the scale of the planetary system. This would conform with the Bohr model of planetary orbits proposed originally by Nottale. One could think of a quantum superposition of radial jets and a state function reduction involving localization to a single radial jet occurring in, say nuclear physics experiments!

    This would be analogous to a state function reduction of angular momentum eigenstate to a momentum eigenstate. After the localization hgr would have reduced to ordinary Planck constant and led to the formation of a planet.

See the article Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe: Part I or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

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