TGD allows the possibility that the magnetic flux quanta associated with criticality carry monopole flux. In Maxwellian electrodynamics this is not possible. These flux tubes are associated with elementary particles: in this case they have open string like portions at parallel space-time sheets connected at their ends by wormhole contacts to form a closed two-sheeted loop. Since the magnetic monopole flux is conserved along the flux tube, one has full reason to wonder whether these closed magnetic flux tubes can be created from vacuum.
One can imagine two manners to create flux loops: in a continuous energy conserving manner classically or by quantum jump in which quantum sub-Universe associated with given causal diamond (CD) is re-created (recall that causal diamonds define the observable Universes and they have finite size as intersections of future and past directed light-ones)
Consider for simplicity flux tubes which are circular. How the flux tubes can be generated?
- One possibility is that an existing circular flux tube splits into two. This would take place by self-reconnection: circular flux tubes evolves first a figure eight shape, and after that self-reconnects and splits to two circular flux tubes. Figure eight is necessary because the direction of the conserved magnetic flux defines orientation and flux tube portions with opposite orientations cannot join. This mechanism allows replication of flux tubes and could be behind the 1→ 2 decays of elementary particles and the reverse reactions. It could be also behind biological replication at both DNA and cell level, and even higher levels. The reconnection of U-shaped flux tubes for two systems so that they become connected by a pair of flux tubes is the reverse of this process and is proposed to define fundamental mechanism of directed attention.
- Can one imagine a purely classical mechanism in which flux tubes would be generated from nothing? An idealization as a closed string allows to imagine a closed string which begins from point and expands: in string models this kind of closed strings indeed pop up from vacuum. Energy conservation however forbids the classical occurrence of this process. Therefore this process is possible only in path integral formalism which allows processes, which are classically
In TGD framework space-time surfaces appearing in the functional integral are extremals of Kähler action and conserve energy so that this kind of process is impossible. It is difficult to say what happens when the string is replaced with a flux tube having a a finite thickness: could this make it possible an energy conserving process in which initial state would not contain flux tubes but final would contain flux tubes? At elementary particle level this would mean generation of a particle or a pair from vacuum but this does not take place. Note that the development of Higgs expectation can be interpreted as generation of new vacuum state which contains Higgs bosons: TGD counterpart of the ground state would be a superposition of states containing various numbers of flux loops.
- One can however consider a quantum jump generating flux tube from nothing. The sequence of quantum jumps consist of sub-sequences consisting of state function reductions to a fixed boundary of CD ("upper" or "lower"). A sub-sequence defining self corresponds to a sequence of repeated quantum measurements having no effect on the state in ordinary quantum measurement theory. In TGD state function reduction has effect on the second boundary. Or to be precise, on the wave function in the moduli space associated with the second boundary with moduli characterising among other things the temporal distance from the fixed boundary. This effect gives rise to the experienced flow of time as increase of the average temporal distance between the tips of CD and also to its arrow.
These state function sequences do not last for ever (self has finite lifetime!): Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) eventually forces state function reduction at the opposite boundary of CD. The new state can contain flux loops which did not exist in the initial state. These flux loops could exists also outside the CD but this is not relevant for the physics experienced by the conscious observer associated with given CD.
The generation of this kind of monopole flux loops from nothing could be seen as a direct proof for macroscopic quantum jumps re-creating the Universe. Penrose proposed something similar in Shadows of Mind: quasicrystals are non-periodic lattices which look like lattices but - unlike ordinary crystals - cannot be generated by gradual lattice growth but must pop up in quantal manner to existence.