A comment about the role of biologically important ions is in order. As a rule they tend to have low valence, especially those whose cyclotron frequencies for Bend=.2 Gauss seem to be important biologically. The possibly existing valence bonds between atoms towards the left end of the rows of the periodic table (Li,Na,K,Ca, Mg,..) - if they even exist at all - have low valence and low value n satisfying n≥ 6 (note that the valence of the bond is the valence of the atom with higher valence).
- The potential negentropy content of low valence bonds is low and also metabolic energy content defined as difference of energy from the situation in which one has n=6 derived from the experiments of Randell Mills (see this). Thus low valence bonds are not important for metabolism.
- Low valence ions have however different role: they appear as biologically important positive ions important for the communications to and control by MB. For instance, dark photons with cyclotron frequencies in magnetic fields of flux tubes would be involved with control by dark photons. These dark photons could also transfer energy to MB. The values of n for dark photons can be as high as n ∼ 1012 or even higher from the condition that the energies of dark photons with frequencies in EEG range are above thermal energy or even in visible and UV range for bio-photons.
Values of n for dark ions could be thus much higher than for electrons at valence bonds if their cyclotron energies correspond to dark photon energies. Dark photons and dark cyclotron condensates would represent a higher level of evolutionary hierarchy and control and coordination in quite long length scales responsible for the quantum coherence of living matter.
Remark: Recall that the assumption hbareff=hbargr= GMm/v0, where v0>c has dimensions of velocity, m mass of the charged particle, and M some large mass, guarantees universality of cyclotron energy spectrum (spectrum of bio-photons in visible and UV range). This gives n∼ 1013 for 10 Hz cyclotron frequency photon energy about 1 eV. Fe++ has fc=10 Hz in Bend=.2 Gauss.
- In TGD protons H+ appear as dark protons. The small value of the atomic binding energy would explain why hydrogen appears as ion: dark atoms with this value of n would have extremely large size. Dark protons need not of course have the value of n characterizing dark EEG photons. Rather, entire hierarchy of frequency scales is expected ranging down to the energies of IR photons still above the thermal energy.
- Hydrogen bond carrying de-localized proton would serve as the simplest example and be associated with magnetic flux tube. Hydrogen bonded water molecule clusters are crucial for life. Hydrogen bonds are also formed between OH groups of say water and some other high valence atoms.
Dark DNA/RNA/amino-acid/tRNA realized as dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes and realizing vertebrate genetic code (prediction) would be second realization giving rise to dark nuclei (see this). Cell membrane as generalized Josephson junction would involve electronic Cooper pairs and dark protons or even their Cooper pairs (see this). At microscopic level membrane proteins defining various ion channels and pumps would act as generalized Josephson junctions.
- What about heavier ions? Their dark variants appear at MB and play a key role in TGD based model for quantum biology and neuroscience. They appear at flux tubes assignable to generalized Josephson junctions and at layers of MB in much longer scales (note that hydrogen bond is analogous to Josephson junction). Dark ions carrying much more information in BE condensates than dark valence electrons would serve control purposes whereas dark electrons at valence bonds would carry metabolic energy.
- What about noble gases? Can one say that they have maximal valence or do they have vanishing valence and therefore n=6 as the findings of Mills suggest? If they had maximal valence they should be biologically important but they are not: thus n=6 identification is feasible. Ions at the right end of the rows of periodic table, say Cl- ion, are like noble gas atoms as far as valence is considered. The electronic negentropy of H-Cl understood as H+ bonded with Cl- (ionic bond rather than valence bond) and metabolic energy content would be minimal. Cl- could however form cyclotron condensates with a large value of n, which would explain its biological importance.
Amusingly, plastic balls in plasma of Ar+ ions appear in the experiment demonstrating life like properties of this system ("breathing") (see this). Ar+ would have maximal possible valence and thus maximal value of n and would appear at flux tubes.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.