Friday, December 29, 2017

How the ionization is possible in living matter?

The appearance of ions in living matter looks mysterious. Same is true concerning ions in electrolytes. It is easy to talk about cold plasma but much more difficult to answer the question how this cold plasma can be created. Usually the formation of plasma involves ionization, which requires high temperature of order of the atomic binding energy for the valence electrons of the atom. For hydrogen atom the binding energy is around 13 eV, which corresponds to a temperature of roughly 130,000 Kelvin! This is three orders of magnitude higher than room temperature! In electrolyte the presence of rather weak electric fields cannot explain why the ionization takes place.

For some reason chemists and biologists do not spend much time in pondering fundamentals and theoreticians enjoying monthly salary have a highly irreverent attitude to these disciplines as an intellectual entertainment of lower life-forms. Therefore also this question has been guided under the rug and stayed there.

TGD based explanation for the paradox is simple. If the value of heff/h=n for valence electrons is high enough, the binding energy, which is proportional to 1/n2, becomes so high that a photon with rather low energy, say infrared (IR) photon, can be ionize the dark atom. One can say that the atoms in this state are quantum critical, a small perturbation can ionize them.

  1. In the TGD based model of cold fusion as dark nucleosynthesis the atoms would have n=212= 2056 and the ionization would create dark nuclei as sequences of dark protons at magnetic flux tubes (see this).

  2. In the TGD based model for the analogs of DNA/RNA/amino-acid sequences/tRNA as dark proton sequences the value of n would be of the order of 106 higher so that the distance between dark protons, would be a same as between DNA letters, about 3 Angstroms. For these values of n dark atoms are unstable at room temperatures.

  3. In Pollack effect (see this) the irradiation by IR light or visible light or by pumping energy to the system by some other means produces negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs) in which water molecules form hexagonal layers and obey the effective stoichiometry H3/2 O. Part of protons (every fourth) goes to magnetic flux tubes as dark protons. How it is possible to create this state by IR radiation?

    1. The original assumption was that in second OH bond of water molecule is excited to a high energy state near to ionization energy so that IR photon can split the bond. The question is: why and how? Do the UV photons from solar radiation cause the excitation?

    2. A more elegant option is that the value of n for the second O-H bond is so large that the bond binding energy is so small that IR photon can split the bond. Solar UV photons could induce the dark excitation. Taking 5 eV as rough estimate for the bond binding energy in the normal state water, this requires the reduction of energy by a factor of order 103 to give IR energy .05 eV (energy scale assignable to the membrane potential eV). n would increase by factor of order 25=32 from its value for O-H bond according to standard chemistry. A small push by absorption of IR photon can split the O-H bond and create dark proton at flux tube. Any perturbation feeding to the system this energy can induce the kicking of dark proton to flux tube. The generalization of this mechanism to various atoms could be one of the basic mechanisms of quantum criticality in living matter.

See the article Does valence bond theory relate to the hierarchy of Planck constants? or the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.


Ulla said...

We need metals, esp. alkali to shield from magnetic noise :)


also to increase the superconductive temp, it seems.


it do relate tp h_eff and non-abelian computation.


it tell why carbon, litium and others are so crucial for Life.

Maybe h_eff is related to superconductivity too?

Living matter are quite Amazing sensors, indeed. I post links when I have sorted it out. Thanks for the enormous help.

Ulla said...

one hint.
dark nuclei = Majorana fermions or axions


the OH is not the important one but how to build negentropy and memory.

Matti Pitkänen said...

h_eff is involved with superconductivity and -fluidity. The surprise was that it is involved with the transition from atomic physics to chemistry and in organic and biochemistry it becomes really important.

Ulla said...

Exactly. Living matter starts to look like a reactor. It answers many odd questions I have had, like, why do we need to eat...

This paper looks interesting
a bit technical...

Ulla said...

Doping with alkali metals seems to shift the transition to a higher temp superconduction. This is what we have looked for all the years.
The paper talked of different width of splitting zones for the alkali metals.

Ulla said...

Look at this, plastic film, polymer....
You talked of plastic balls earlier...
from 2013. How has it gone unseen?

Ulla said...

Potassium homeostasis and Li,+natrium+potassium&source=bl&ots=z3hS1m07Q1&sig=TN6t8sTc9uT8UoPs7KnRLtjaDAM&hl=sv&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHrLLphsTYAhVBWywKHWXQDWoQ6AEIPDAC#v=onepage&q=microtubule%20litium%2C%20natrium%20potassium&f=false

Note that in (some) cancers also K is excreted from the cells. K is usually found inside cells, for the polarization.

So Li weakens it?

Matti Pitkänen said...

The authors approach the role of Li from purely chemical view point, which is of course understandable;-). When one speaks of cyclotron frequencies and dark ions and magnetic body, there is something completely new involved. It is difficult to compare the results represented with the book to the basic prediction that Li and other ions (ions,this is important) play key role in the communication to and control by magnetic body. They could be important also in the transfer of metabolic energy to magnetic body. Perhaps for cell membranes in general: for neurons information transfer would be also present as as modulation of cyclotron frequencies by nerve pulse patters.

Matti Pitkänen said...

Bose-Einstein condensation happens for exciton-polaritons at room temperature, this temperature is four orderes of magnitude higher than the corresponding temperature for crystals. This puts bells ringing.

One learns from web that exciton-polaritons are electron hole pairs- photons kick electron to higher energy state and exciton is created.These quasiparticles would form a Bose-Einstein condensate.

a) The energy of excitons must be of order thermal energy at room temperature: IR photons are in question. Membrane potential happens to corresponds to this energy. That the material is organic, might be of relevance. Living matter involves various Bose-Einstein condensate and one can consider also excitons.

As noticed the critical temperature is surprisingly high. For crystal BECs it is of order .01 K. Now by a factor 30,000 times higher!

b) Does the large value of h_eff =n*h visible make the critical temperature so high?

Here I must look at Wikipedia: see–Einstein_condensation_of_quasiparticles .

Unforturately the formula for n^1/3 is copied from source and contains several errors.

It should read n^(1/3)= (hbar)^(-1) (m_effkT_cr)^(x), x= 1/2, [not x=-1/2 and hbar(-1) rather than hbar as in Wikipedia formula].

This is usual: it would important to have Wikipedia contributors who understand at least something about what they are copying from various sources.

c) The correct formula for critical temperture T_cr reads as

T_cr= (dn/dV)^(y) hbar^2/m_eff , y=2/3.

[T_cr replaces T_c and y=2/3 replaces y=2 in Wikipedia formula].

d) In TGD one can generalize by replacing hbar with hbar_eff=n hbar so that one has

T_c-->n^2T_c .

Critical temperature would behave like n^2 and the high critical temperature (room temperature) could be understood. In crystals the critical temperature is very low but in organic matter large value of n= about 100 might change the situation. n=about 100 would scale atomic length scale of 1 Angstrom as coherence length to cell membrane thickness. This is my bet.

e) One can consider also the conservative option n=1. T_c is also proportional to density (dn/dV)^2, where dn/dV is the density of excitons and inverselity proportional to their effective mass m_eff. In standard physics so high a critical temperature would require either large density dn/dV about factor 100 higher than in crystals or small m_eff. This does not look plausible. m_eff must be of order electron mass so that the density dn/dV or n is the critical parameter.