Thanks for Nikolina Benedikovic for kindly providing an interesting link and for arousing my curiosity. In the link one learns that Leonard Susskind has admitted that superstrings do not provide a theory of everything. This is actually not a mindblowing surprise since very few can claim that the news about the death of superstring theory would be premature. Congratulations in any case to Susskind: for a celebrated super string guru it requires courage to change one's mind publicly. I will not discuss in the following the tragic fate of superstrings. Life must continue despite the death of superstring theory and there are much more interesting ideas to consider.

Susskind is promoting an idea about growing blackholes increasing their volume as the swallow matter around them (see this). The idea is that the volume of the blackhole measures the complexity of the blackhole and from this its not long way to the idea that information - may be conscious information (I must admit that I cannot imagine any other kind of information) - is in question.

Some quantum information theorists find this idea attractive. Quantum information theoretic ideas find a natural place also in TGD. Magnetic flux tubes would naturally serving as space-time correlates for entanglement (the p-adic variants of entanglement entropy can be negative and would serve as measures of conscious information) and this leads to the idea about tensor networks formed by the flux tubes (see this). So called strong form of holography states that 2-D objects - string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces as sub-manifolds of space-time surfaces carry the information about space-time surface and quantum states. M^{8}-M^{4} ×CP_{2} correspondence would realize quantum information theoretic ideas at even deeper level and would mean that discrete finite set of data would code for the given space-time surface as preferred extremal.

In TGD Universe long cosmic strings thickened to flux tubes would be key players in the formation of galaxies and would contain galaxies as tangles along them. These tangles would contain sub-tangles having interpretation as stars and even planets could be such tangles.

I just wrote an article describing a model of quasars (see this) based on this idea. In this model quasars need not be blackholes in GRT sense but have structure including magnetic moment (blackhole has no hair), an empty disk around it created by the magnetic propeller effect caused by radial Lorentz force, a luminous ring and accretion disk, and so called Elvis structure involving outwards flow of matter. One could call them quasi- blackholes - I will later explain why.

- Matter would not fall in blackhole but magnetic and volume energy in the interior would transform to ordinary matter and mean thickening of the flux tubes forming a configuration analogous to flow lines of dipole magnetic fields by looping. Think of formation of dipole field by going around flux line replaced by flux tube, returning and continuing along another flux line/tube.

- The dipole part of the structure would be cylindrical volume in which flux tubes would form structure consisting analogous to a coil in which one makes n
_{2}≈ 10^{7}(G_{N}= R^{2}/n_{2}h_{0}) windings in CP_{2}direction and continues in different position in M^{4}and repeats the same. This is like having a collection of coils in M_{4}but each in CP_{2}direction. This collection of coils would fill the dipole cylinder having the case of quasar studied a radius smaller than the Schwartshild radius r_{S}≈ 5×10^{9}km but with the same order of magnitude. The wire from given coil would continue as a field line of the magnetic dipole field and return back at opposite end of dipole cylinder and return along it to opposite pole. The total number of loops in the collection of n_{1}dipole coils with n_{2}windings in CP_{2}direction is n_{1}×n_{2}.

- Both the Kähler magnetic energy and volume energy (actually magnetic energy associated with twistor sphere) are positive and the expansion of flux tubes stops when the minum string tension is achieved. This corresponds roughly to a biological length scale about 1 mm for the value of cosmological constant in the length scale of the observed universe (see this).

**Remark:**Note that the twistor lift of TGD allows to consider entire hierarchy of cosmological constants behaving like 1/L(k)^{2}, where L(k) is p-adic length scale corresponding to p≈ 2^{k}.

How to obtain the observed small value of cosmological constant? This is not possible for the simplest imaginable induced twistor structure and the cosmological consant would be huge. A simple solution of the problem would be the p-adic length scale evolution of Λ as Λ ∝ 1/p, p≈ 2

^{k}. At certain radius of flux tube the total energy becomes minimum. A phase transition reducing the value of Λ allows further expansion and transformation of the energy of flux tube to particles. There is also a simple proposal for the imbedding of the twistor sphere of space-time surface to the product of twistor spheres of M^{4}and CP_{2}allowing the desired dependence of Λ on p-adic length scale.

This in turn leads to a precise definition what coupling constant evolution does mean: this has been one of the most longstanding problems of quantum TGD. The evolution would follow from the invariance of action under small enough changes of Λ induce by simple modifications of the imbedding of the twistor sphere of space-time surface the product of twistor spheres of M

4 and CP _{2}. There is a family of imbeddings labelled by rotations of these twistor spheres with respect to other and one can consider a one-dimension sub-family of these imbeddings.

This would solve the basic problem of cosmology, which is understanding why cosmological constant manages to be so small at early times. Now time evolution would be replaced with length scale evolution and cosmological constant would be indeed huge in very short scales but its recent value would be extremely small.

- Cosmological expansion would naturally relate to the thickening of the flux tubes, and one can also consider the possibility that the long cosmic string gets more and more looped (dipole field gets more and more loops) so that the quasi-blackhole would increase in size by swallowing more and more of long cosmic string spaghetti to the dipole region and transforming it to the loops of dipole magnetic field.

- The quasar (and also galactic blackhole candidates and active galactic nuclei) would be extremely intelligent fellows with number theoretical intelligence quotient (number of sheets of the space-time surfaces as covering) about

h

_{eff}/h = n/6= n_{1}×n_{2}/6 > GMm(CP_{2})/v_{0}×ℏ = (r_{S}/R(CP_{2}))× (1/2β_{0}),

where one has β

_{0}= v_{0}/c, where v_{0}roughly of the order 10^{-3}c is a parameter with dimensions of velocity r_{S}is Schwartschild radius of quasi-blackhole of order 10^{9}km, and R(CP_{2}) is CP_{2}radius of order 10^{-32}meters. If this blackhole like structure is indeed cosmic string eater, its complexity and conscious intelligence increases and it would represent the brains of the galaxy as a living organism. This picture clearly resembles the vision of Susskind about blackholes.

- This cosmic spaghetti eater has also a time reversed version for which the magnetic propellor effect is in opposite spatial direction: mass consisting of ordinary particles flows to the interior. Could this object be the TGD counterpart of blackhole? Or could one see both these objects as e blackholes dual to each other (maybe as analogs of white holes and blackholes)? The quasar like blackhole would eat cosmic string and its time reversal would swallow from its environment the particle like matter that its time reversed predecessor generated. Could one speak of breathing? Inwards breath and outwards breath would be time reversals of each other. This brings in mind the TGD inspired living cosmology based on zero energy ontology (ZEO) (see this) as analog of Penrose's cyclic cosmology, which dies and re-incarnates with opposite arrow of time again and again.

- How to understand the fusion of blackholes (or neutron stars, I will however talk only about blackholes in the sequel) to bigger blackhole observed by LIGO if quasi-blackholes are in question? Suppose that the blackholes indeed represent dipole light tangles in cosmic string. If they are associated with the same cosmic string, they collisions would be much more probable than one might expect. One can imagine two extreme cases for the motion of the blackholes. There are two options.

- Tangles plus matter move along string like along highway. The collision would be essentially head on collision.

- Tangles plus matter around them move like almost free particles and string follows: this would however still help the blackholes to find each either. The observed collisions can be modelled as a formation of gravitational bound state in which the blackholes rotate around each other first.

- Tangles plus matter move along string like along highway. The collision would be essentially head on collision.
- Do the observed black-hole like entities correspond to quasar like objects or their time reversals (more like ordinary blackholes). The unexpectedly large masses would suggests that they have not yet lost their mass by thickening as stars usually so that they are analogs of quasars. These objects would be cosmic string eaters and this would also favour the collisions of blackhole like entities associated with the same cosmic string.

- This picture would provide a possible explanation for the evidence for gravitational echoes and evidence for magnetic fields in the case of blackholes formed in the fusion of blackholes in LIGO (see this). The echoes would result from the repeated reflection of the radiation from the inner blackhole like region and from the ring bounding the accretion disk.

Note that I have earlier proposed a model of ordinary blackholes in which there would be Schwartschild radius but at some radius below it the space-time surface would become Euclidian. In the recent case the Euclidian regions would be however associated only with wormhole contacts with Euclidian signature of metric bounded by light-like orb its of partonic 2-surfaces and might have sizes of order Compton length scaled up by the value of h

_{eff}/h for dark variants of particle and therefore rather small as compared to blackhole radius.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

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