Thursday, May 30, 2024

Why the electric currents that should accompany magnetic substorms in the magnetotail are missing?

I found an interesting popular article (see this) telling about the surprising findings associated with the sub-storms of magnetic storms accompanying sunspots in the magnetotail of the Earth. The reconnections were observed and Maxwell's electrodynamics also predicts electric currents associated with them. However, there was no evidence for them.

TGD based view of electromagnetic fields predicts deviations from the Maxwellian view. In TGD, the magnetic field decomposes into two parts. The TGD counterpart of Maxwellian magnetic fields and the monopole flux part is not present in the Maxwellian theory.

  1. The Maxwellian part consists of flux tubes with a cross section which has a boundary, say disk. The flux tubes correspond to space-time regions, or space-time sheets as I call them. The Maxwellian part requires currents to create it. At the quantum field theory (QFT) limit of TGD this gives rise to the Maxwellian magnetic fields.
  2. The monopole part consists of closed monopole flux tubes, which have a closed 2-surface as cross section and the Maxwellian flux tubes with, say, disk-like cross section. These are not possible in field theories in Minkowski space. Monopole flux part would contribute roughly 2/5 to the total magnetic field strength of Earth at the QFT limit.

    What is important is that the monopole part does not require currents to create it. The monopole part is topologically stable and explains the puzzling existence of the magnetic fields in even cosmic scales and also the maintenance of the Earth's magnetic field. The Maxwellian part decays since the currents creating it dissipate (see this) .

Monopole flux tubes carry heff>h phases of ordinary matter behaving like dark matter.
  1. These phases solve the missing baryon problem and the increasing fraction of missing baryons during cosmic evolution. The loss of baryons would be due to the gradual generation of effectively dark phases of nucleons (and other particles) with increasing values of heff. heff has an interpretation as a measure for an algebraic complexity of the space-time region measured by the dimension of the algebraic extension defined by the two polynomials associated with the region of space-time surface considered. A given polynomial with integer or rational coefficients defines an extension of rationals and the extensions associated with two polynomials define an extension containing both extensions. Mathematically, this increase is completely analogous to the unavoidable increase of entropy. This increase of complexity would give to evolution, also biological evolution. Dark matter in this sense plays a key role in the TGD inspired quantum biology.
  2. Notice that in TGD, the galactic dark matter is actually dark energy of cosmic strings (extremely thin monopole flux tubes) and of the monopole flux tubes to which they thicken as extremely thin flux tubes. Therefore one should speak of galactic dark energy. The recent discovery of what looks like MOND type gravitational anomaly for distant stars of binaries gives strong support for this view (see this).
Consider now the mystery of the missing currents. No electric currents associated with storm were observed also the signatures of reconnections were observed. Could the magnetopause be dominated by the monopole flux tubes carrying the heff>h phases of ordinary mater behaving like dark matter. The existence of the associated electric currents is not needed to create the monopole magnetic fields. Are electric currents very weak or are they only apparently absent since they are dark? How does magnetotail relate to this? Is it only because the reconnections occur here.

See the article at Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe: part II or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

No comments: