Friday, February 02, 2024

Does Expanding Mars hypothesis make sense?

There is a considerable evidence that ancient Mars has had lakes or even oceans.

This relates in an interesting way to the TGD based model explaining the Cambrian Explosion (roughly 500 million years ago) plus other strange geological observations.

A well-known problem in cosmology based on general relativity is that astrophysical objects do not seem to participate in cosmic expansion although they do co-move with it. In the TGD Universe cosmic expansion of astrophysical objects would occur as rapid jerks for. In accordance with this, the model assumes that Earth radius grew by a factor two in a rather short time scale. TGD indeed predicts a hierarchy of fundamental length scales coming as powers of two. This rapid expansion would have bursted the underground oceans, where photosynthesizing life had evolved, to the surface and gave rise to the recent oceans. This view has a lot of empirical support and the TGD based new physics allows to overcome the obvious objections.

Consider first in more detail various motivations for the Expanding Earth model.

The geological motivation is that the continents seem to fit nicely to cover the entire surface of Earth if the radius of Earth is one half of its recent value. This observation (, which was not made by me) generalizes the tectonic plate theory of Wegener.

Biology provides further motivations.

  1. There are extremely few fossils from the time before the Cambrian explosion and almost all of them are single-celled. Life should have evolved extremely rapidly during the time of Cambrian Explosion.
  2. The energy flow from the sun (faint Sun paradox) was too low for life to develop before the Cambrian Explosion.
  3. The hypothesized oceans would have been far too low in oxygen for the development of oxygen based metabolism necessary for multicellular life.
  4. Cosmic rays and meteor bombardment would have made it very difficult for the complex life forms to evolve at the surface of Earth.
As if life had suddenly bursted to the surface of Earth.
  1. Did it emerge from subterranean oceans providing shield against meteorite bombardment and a warm enough environment? Could this have happened in a rather rapid increase of the Earth radius by factor 2 splitting the crust into continents and led to a formation of oceans having the required oxygen concentration.
  2. But where did the necessary radiation that made photosynthesis leading to complex multicellulars come from? The temperature of the Earth's core happens to be such that the thermal radiation is concentrated at the same wavelengths as radiation from the Sun? It was also recently discovered that there is life so deep beneath the earth's surface that solar radiation cannot provide the metabolic energy.

    Could one think that the radiation from the Earth's core served as a metabolic energy source. Could this energy source be still at work? The standard model based physics does not allow this. The new physics predicted by TGD allows this.

For expanding Earth hypothesis, see for instance and . What about underground life in Mars?
  1. The average density of Mars is near to that of recent Earth (mass is .1 Earth masses and radius roughly 1/2 of R_E). This leads to the question of whether Mars has already experienced a similar transition increasing its radius by 1/2 and density by factor 8? This would have brought the possible underground water to the surface. Later the water would have been lost. Mars would not have been as lucky as Earth.
  2. The objection is that Mars has no plate tectonics. The alternative option that I have discussed earlier is that Mars is still waiting for the expansion to take place. Intriguingly, it has the same radius as Earth before the Cambrian explosion. The ancient presence of oceans/large lakes does not support this view. One might however think that the water from underground oceans leaks to the surface and forms lakes and even shallow oceans.
See for instance the article Expanding Earth Hypothesis and Pre-Cambrian Earth. For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

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