Monday, February 12, 2024

Missing baryon problem from the TGD point of view

The following piece of text was meant to be a comment to an FB post telling about the missing baryon problem (see this). My FB is however plagued by a virus, which makes the addition of comments very difficult: the page disappears just when I try to add the comment. This happened also now.

What is the problem of missing baryonic matter.

  1. 1/7 of the matter of the Universe is dark matter in the sense of galactic dark matter. The identification of the dark matter is still a mystery. LambdaCDM people have decided dark matter to be some exotic particles forming halos around galaxies. MOND people have decided that Newtonian gravity is modified for weak fields.
  2. Besides 30 per cent of the ordinary matter, baryons, seems to be missing. This is known as the missing baryon problem (see this>).

    The prosaic explanation for the puzzle is that with the available technology we are not able to detect the missing part of ordinary matter and it has been argued that the missing baryonic matter can be assigned with long filamentary structures. This explanation might be correct.

What can one say about dark matter in the TGD framework?
  1. In the TGD Universe, the radiation dominated phase was preceded by cosmic string dominance. They would have decayed to ordinary matter like inflaton fields and led to the radiation dominated Universe.
  2. The galactic dark matter could be actually dark energy assignable with long cosmic strings with a gigantic string tension. Monopole flux would make them stable. This dark energy would decay to ordinary matter since the cosmic strings are unstable against thickening and generation of flux tube tangles giving rise to ordinary galaxies.

    This process would be the TGD counterpart of inflation: inflaton fields would be replaced by cosmic strings. This view predicts the flat velocity spectra of galaxies using only string tension as a parameter and makes a long list of predictions allowing us to understand the anomalies of LambdaCDM and MOND.

  3. TGD predicts also matter behaving like dark matter. This analog of dark matter is identifiable as heff>h phases of THE ordinary matter and could contribute to the missing baryonic matter. I have used to talk about dark matter but this matter need not be galactic dark matter, which could be mostly dark energy for cosmic strings. The dark phases can have arbitrarily long quantum coherence scales and they play a fundamental role in living matter as controllers of the ordinary matter. In TGD inspired biology dark protons identified as this kind of phase at monopole flux tubes play an essential role.

    What could one say about the missing baryonic matter in this framework? I have considered this question in more detail earlier (see this), and the following general comment explains why ordinary baryons should transform to dark ones during the cosmic evolution.

    1. Could the missing ordinary matter correspond to heff>h phases of the ordinary matter? The intuitive view is that the density of dark protons is much smaller than the number of ordinary protons. Could this be true only in the regions containing high density of ordinary matter. Could the fraction of ordinary protons be much larger than that of dark protons only in the regions where the visible matter is concentrated.
    2. Why would ordinary nucleons transform to dark nucleons? Evolution means the increase of complexity. In the TGD Universe this means the increase of heff, which corresponds to a dimension of algebraic extension of rationals characterizing polynomials which at the fundamental level characterize space-time regions. Number theoretic evolution would transform the ordinary matter to dark matter as heff>h phases residing at the monopole flux tubes. Could 30 per cent of ordinary matter have transformed to dark matter in this sense?
    See the article Cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions, or dark nuclear synthesis? or the chapter Cold Fusion Again.

    For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

    For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

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