Paul Kirsch sent a link to an article "Extraterrestrial Life in Space Plasmas in the Thermosphere, UAP, Pre-Life Fourth State of Matter" by Rhawn et al (see this) describing sensational findings giving support for the existence of plasma life forms 320 km above the Earth in thermosphere. I have been talking for decades about plasmoids as primordial life forms so that these findings are extremely interesting from the TGD point of view. Here is the abstract of the article.
"Plasmas up to a kilometer in size, behaving similarly to multicellular organisms have been filmed on 10 separate NASA space shuttle missions, over 200 miles above Earth within the thermosphere. These self-illuminated "plasmas" are attracted to and may "feed on" electromagnetic radiation. They have different morphologies: 1) cone, 2) cloud, 3) donut, 4) spherical-cylindrical; and have been filmed flying towards and descending into thunderstorms; congregating by the hundreds and interacting with satellites generating electromagnetic activity; approaching the Space Shuttles. Computerized analysis of flight path trajectories, documents these plasmas travel at different velocities from different directions and change their angle of trajectory making 45 , 90 , and 180 shifts and follow each other. They've been filmed accelerating, slowing down; stopping; congregating; engaging in "hunter-predatory" behavior, and intersecting plasmas leaving a plasma dust trail in their wake. Similar lifelike behaviors have been demonstrated by plasmas created experimentally. "Plasmas" may have been photographed in the 1940s by WWII pilots (identified as "Foo fighters"); repeatedly observed and filmed by astronauts and military pilots and classified as Unidentified Aerial-Anomalous Phenomenon. Plasmas are not biological but may represent a form of pre-life that via the incorporation of elements common in space, could result in the synthesis of RNA. Plasmas constitute a fourth state of matter, are attracted to electromagnetic activity, and when observed in the lower atmosphere likely account for many of the UFO-UAP sightings over the centuries."
To my best knowledge, this article, published in the Journal of Modern Physics, is the first article mentioning UFOs and UAPs. As becomes clear from the article, many of the findings have been known. Article says that there is still secrecy and fears related to the observations of plasma structures (plasmoids in the sequel) on Earth which are often interpreted as UFOs-UAP sightings. People do not want to get the label of a mad scientist. After 46 years as a mad scientist without funding and research positions, I understand their fears!
As becomes clear from the article, many of the findings have been known. Article says that there is still secrecy and fears related to the observations of plasma structures (plasmoids in the sequel) on Earth which are often interpreted as UFOs-UAP sightings. People do not want to get the label of a mad scientist. After 46 years as a mad scientist without funding and research positions, I understand their fears!
For more than 10 years ago (2007) I participated a conference held in Hessdalen, Norway, where "UFOs" appear regularly and learned that they behave like living intelligent beings and considered these objects in TGD framework (see this). The findings related to plasmoids in the thermosphere support this kind of behavior both at the level of individuals and collectively. The structures involved can be very large: size scales range up to kilometer scale.
The article of Rhawn et al contains a detailed summary of both the history of the development of the theoretical ideas related to plasmoid as a self-organizing structure bringing in mind prebiotic life forms and discusses various findings supporting these speculations made in both lab and in thermosphere. The experiments carried out in the thermosphere satisfy stringent scientific requirements so that it is very difficult to dismiss the findings.
The difference between plasmoids and biological life forms might not be as large as one might think. Biology involves cold plasmas.
- Negatively and positively charged ions play a key role in the physics of cell membrane. One of the mysteries is what ionizes them! We have thought that electrolysis is understood. At least I find that I cannot understand it in terms of standard chemistry. The energies of ions gained in the electric fields involves are quite too small to induce ionization of atoms.
Intriguingly, also "cold fusion" (see this), so bitterly hated by colleagues, appears in electrolytic systems and would involve formation of dark nuclei as dark proton sequences at monopole flux tubes decaying to ordinary nuclei and liberating almost all nuclear binding energy (see this and this). Magnetic flux tubes with large heff would allow dissipationless acceleration of say dark charged particles to very high energies making it possible to ionize that atoms.
- In the TGD Universe, the charged ions communicate with the magnetic body of the system using "dark" (in the TGD sense) Josephson radiation and cyclotron radiation (see this). Resonance, generalizing to multi-resonance, would be the basic mechanism. Same communications and control mechanisms would be realized in plasma life in which chemical realization of genetic code is not yet present. The genetic code could be realized in terms of dark protons and dark photons with genes realized as sequences of dark proton or dark photon triplets realizing genetic codons (see this, this, and this).
The proposal is that genetic code is universal and based on so called completely unique icosa tetrahedral tessellation of hyperbolic 3-space H3 involving tetrahedra, octahedra, and icosahedra and appearing naturally in the TGD framework (see this). This tessellation could be realized in the plasma phase where crystal lattices are reported to appear. Information theoretically, biological life and plasma life could be very similar. Besides the basic morphologies of plasmoid mentioned in the abstract of the article, helical structures are formed and could serve as analogos of DNA and RNA and amino-acids: the information would be stored by the dark DNA realized as sequences of dark proton triplets.
- One fascinating discovery is that the plasmoids seem to behave as if they were moving in water. Water is a key element of biological life. The temperatures in the thermosphere are in the range 200-500 Celsius and beyond the boiling point of water. What could serve as the plasma counterpart of water?
Long range coherence (mystery in the biology-as-nothing-but-chemistry approach) is required, in fact several scales of coherence are needed. In the TGD framework, the quantum coherence of the monopole flux tube network, making it behave more like a liquid rather than gas, would induce the coherence of water. Could the monopole flux tube network also transform the plasma phase to a liquid-like system?
What could make possible quantum coherence at such high temperatures? TGD suggests that cell membranes realize high Tc superconductivity (see this, this and this). High Tc superconductivity would be based on the hierarchy of heff>h phases at monopole flux tubes for which cyclotron energies are scaled up by factor heff/h.
The most recent version of the model of superconductivity (see this) suggests that the transition to high superconductivity could quite generally involve the generation of what I call half-monopole flux tubes (possible as Maxwellian flux tubes requiring a current at the boundary to generate the magnetic field) with a disk-like cross section at a critical temperature Tc1 higher than Tc. At Tc, half-monopole flux tubes would fuse along their boundaries to monopole flux tubes with a spherical cross section (possible only for homologically non-trivial space-time surfaces) and requiring no current. The difference between the total cyclotron energies associated with these configurations would be proportional to heff/h and the critical temperature would increase with heff/h.
- The plasmoids are reported to have a double layered structure with both layers consisting of plasma with the inner layer carrying a negative charge and outer layer a positive charge. This structure is very similar to the double lipid layer associated with the cell membrane. Also these structures could be generalized Josephson junctions such that the voltage between the layers would define the counterpart of membrane potential.
The layers could be super conductors forming a generalized Josephson junction (see this and see this). There would be monopole flux tubes transversal to the layers and the difference of energies for charged particles at the two sides of the structure would be sum of Josephson energy ZeV and the difference of cyclotron energies heffZeB/m. The structure would communicate to its magnetic body by dark Josephson radiation. The communicated information would be about the electromagnetic environment coded by the modulations of the membrane potential in turn coded to frequency modulations of the Josephson radiation.
The message would be received by cyclotron resonance generating as a response a sequence cyclotron resonance pulses analogous nerve pulse patterns sent to the biological body where they would act as control commands. Neural system would rely on this mechanism. The response would generate an analog of stochastic resonance whereas the Josephson radiation would generate the analog of the reversal of stochastic resonance (see this).
- Also a gel-like behavior has been observed. Gel phases (see this) are essential in biology and involve a network plus medium (see the Wikipedia article). The medium can be gas, liquid, or solid and also the network can be one of these phases. Also the plasma phase could serve in the role of medium in the recent situation. The network formed by the monopole flux tubes and carrying dark particles as heff>h phases of ordinary particles could play the role of the network and together with the plasma phase forming the medium give rise to a gel-like phase.
In the TGD framework, the Pollack effect (see this), generating a gel phase by transferring ordinary protons to dark protons at monopole flux tubes and in this way creating negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs, such as cell interior and DNA double strand), would be a building brick of key mechanisms of quantum biology. Pollack effect requires energy and solar radiation provides it and Pollack effect would be a key mechanism of also photosynthesis.
As I developed a model for ball lightning (see this), I realized that the Pollack effect generalizes. The particles could transform to dark particles at the magnetic body, not only by absorbing a photon, but by a formation of a molecular bound state. Pollack effect and its reversal could control transformation of silicates (quartz) to silicon in a liquid phase: the energy of lightning would provide this energy and in this way generate ball lightning as a primitive life form. Is the generalized Pollack effect one of the key mechanisms of plasma life?
- Quite generally, the energies of dark particles increase with heff and heff tends to decrease spontaneously. The basic purpose of metabolic energy feed is to compensate for the decrease in the value of heff. Plasmoids should use electromagnetic radiation as a metabolic energy source just as biological life forms use. Can one imagine a plasma counterpart of photosynthesis? Pollack effect is essential in the TGD based model of photosynthesis and defines a prebiotic form of photosynthesis, which would temporarily store energy to the magnetic body of the system, where dissipation is extremely small. The same temporary storage could take place when the metabolic energy, extracted from metabolites, is temporarily stored to MB in ADP→ ATP transformation.
It is known that plasmoids radiate even at the dark side of the Earth. This supports the view that they are able to store metabolic energy. The long term storage of metabolic energy could emerge when the charged dust particles interact with plasma and form colloidal gel phases (see this) with it. The molecules of the dust particles would store the energy for longer periods of time. Carbonaceous chondrites (see this) are especially interesting dust particles since they contain water, organic molecules, and silicates. The model of ball lightning involves the transformation of silicate to silicon in liquid phase. The presence of the molecules pairing with their dark analogs (in information theoretic sense) could have led to the evolution of the chemical metabolic energy storage.
- Plasmoids are found to gather above thunderstorms and descend to them. Thunderstorms involve large charges and strong electric fields and therefore give rise to MBs with very large values of heff=hem, which has an interpretation as a measure for number theoretical complexity and also serves a universal IQ. Thunderstorms could also serve as metabolic energy storages. The acceleration of dark particles in the strong electric fields at monopole flux tubes would increase the value of heff of the particles.
- The nearly orthogonal motion of tether in the Earth's magnetic field BE gives rise to Faray effect generating to a voltage along the tether, which in turn induces an ohmic current and charge density creating a radial electric field. The current flows out at the other end of the tether. It is also possible to generate a current to the tether. The charge moving along the tether experiences Lorenz force orthogonal to BE and tether and forces motion. The article provides a quantitative view about the currents flowing along the tether, electric field strengths and total charges possible for the tether.
- What is observed is that plasmoids gradually appear around this structure and make contacts with the wire. It is not clear whether they arrive from outer space or whether artificial prebiotic life forms are created as a response to the electromagnetic fields and electric current created by the electrons running in the tether!
This proposal generalizes the notion of gravitational Planck constant introduced by Nottale (see this). I wrote just a few weeks ago two articles relating to this. The first one proposed a model of ball lightning (see this) and lightning. The second article (see this) discussed large scale quantum coherence in presence of electrically charged objects carrying large electric charge (Earth is the basic example and the charged wire second one).
Plasmoids would gather around the tether since this would increase the value of "personal" heff since the acceleration in the strong electric field would provide metabolic energy making it possible heff increasing phase transition. The presence of a tether's magnetic body would also help to reach a higher level of collective consciousness.
One can estimate the value of hem for the tether system using the data provided in the Wikipedia articles (see this).
- The current density can be written as j=ρ v, where ρ is the average charge density of the tether and v is the velocity parameter assignable to the electrons. This gives for the current I the expression I= ρ v S, where S is the cross sectional area of the tether. One can solve ρ as ρ= I/vS and from this the total charge of the tether as Q= ρ SL= IL/v.
- One can use the length L=20 km of the tether and the reported typical values of the Ohmic current I and estimate v from a typical electron energy E as v=(2mE)1/2>. From the Wikipedia article, the typical values I= 100 mA and E=102 eV. The latter gives v=2× 10-2c. This would give Q=.33 mC, that is Q≈ 2× 1015e. The value of hem/h=Qe2/β0 would be for Z=1 and β0=1 equal to 8π α × 1015≈ 1.4× 1014. 10 Hz alpha frequency would correspond to the energy of order .06 eV which happens to correspond to the Coulomb energy assignable to the cell membrane potential. This value of heff is near to the minimal value for which the cyclotron energy is above the thermal energy at room temperature.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.
For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.