The basic theoretical objection against blackholes was due to Einstein himself. The collapse of matter to single point is simply impossible. This objection has been however forgotten since doing calculations is much more pleasant activity than hard thinking, and an enormous literature have been produced based on this idealization. There is no doubt that blackhole like entities (BHEs) with about Schwartschild radius exist, but general relativity does not allow to say anything about the situation inside possibly existing horizon.
TGD was born as a solution to the fundamental difficulty of GRT due to the loss of classical conservation laws. In TGD framework BHEs correspond to volume filling flux tube tangles. Also galactic BHEs would correspond to a volume filling flux tube tangles.
In TGD framework also stars could be seen as BHEs having the flux tube thickness characterized by p-adic length scale as an additional parameter. GRT blackholes correspond to flux tube thickness about proton Compton length. For instance, Sun can be seen as a BHE and the size is predicted correctly (see this) .
The model for BHEs makes large number of correct predictions.
- The minimal radii/masses of GRT blackholes and neutron stars are predicted correctly.
- Ordinary blackhole thermodynamics is replaced with the thermodynamics associated with monopole flux tubes carrying galactic dark mass characerized by Hagedorn temperature and the thermodynamics gravitional flux tubes characerized by Hawking temperature but for gravitational Planck constant h_gr so that it is gigantic as compared to the ordinary Hawking temperature.
In thermal equilibrium these temperatures are same and this predicts hadronic string tension correctly.
- The observations by ALMA telescope show that stars can be formed surprisingly near to galactic BHEs (see this). For instance, 11 young stars just forming have been found at distane of 3 ly from galactic BHE of Milky Way. This is impossible since the intense tidal forces and UV and X ray radiation should make impossible the condensation of stars from gas clouds.
TGD explanation: Galaxies are formed as tangles on long thicknened cosmic string responsible for galactic dark matter as dark energy. Same mechanism give rise to stars as subtangles generating at least part of the orinary matter as decay of the magnetic energy of the flux tube as it thickens. Ordinary matter already present could concentrate around the tangle.
One learns from the discussion in the above link that star formation involves bipolar flow consisting two jets in opposite directions believed to take care of angular momentum conservation: the star formed is thought to be formed from a rotating gas cloud (rotation would be around flux tube) having much larger angular momentum and part of must be carried out by jets naturally parallel to the flux tube. Also this gives support for the view that stars are tangles along flux tube. There are also hundreds of massive and much older stars in the vicinity of galactic BHE.
Note that in TGD also these stars could be seen as BHEs but with different p-adic length scale characterizing the thickened flux tube.
- "Non-hungry" BHEs are found.
TGD explanation: In zero energy ontology to which quantum TGD relies, one must distinguish between BHEs and their time reversals, whilehole like objects (WHEs), analogous to white holes. WHEs would not be "hungry" but feed matter into environment. The counterparts or jets would flow into WHE and matter would flow out from WHE.
- The standard theoretical belief is that in a dense star cluster only single blackhole can exist. If there are several blackholes, they start to rotate around each other and fuse to a smaller blackhole. A case with two blackholes have been however observed.
TGD explanation: A possible explanation is that the objets are WHEs and their behavior is time reversal of BHEs.
- The velocities of particles in the jets associated with a galactic BHEs are near light veloity and require extremely high energies and thus strong magnetic fields. No strong magnetic field has been however observed.
TGD explanation: In TGD Maxwellian magnetic fields are replaced with flux tubes carrying quantized monopole flux not possible in Maxwellian world. Their existence allows to understand the presence of magnetic fields in even cosmological scales, the maintenance problem of Earth's magnetic field, and the recent findings about the magnetic field of Mars. Ordinary magnetic fields correspond to vanishing total flux and are indeed weak: it is these magnetic fields outside the jet which would have been measured. Galaxies are tangles in monopole flux tube and this is the carrier of very strong magnetic field associated with jets parallel to the flux tube.
- Very distant galactic blackholes with distances in scale of million light years have radio jets in the same direction. This is very difficult to unders in standard view about cosmology.
TGD explanation: The galactic BHEs would be associated with the same long cosmic string forming galaxies as tangles.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.
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