Monday, August 21, 2023

Empirical support for the Expanding Earth hypothesis

During last weeks I have learned about several pieces of empirical support for the Expanding Earth hypothesis which is a rather dramatic prediction distinguishing between TGD and general relativity and has profound implications for biology. I attach below the abstract of the article "Empirical support for the Expanding Earth hypothesis" summarizing these findings. These findings are also discussed in the chapter "Quantum gravitation and quantum biology in TGD Universe".

In this article I discuss the empirical support for the Expanding Earth hypothesis that I have become aware of quite recently.

  1. There is empirical support for the view that the oxygenation of oceans did not occur before CE. This conforms with the prediction that oxygenation was due to photosynthesis in underground oceans. TGD provides the new physics needed: dark photons from either Earth's core or Sun could have provided the metabolic energy making photosynthesis and therefore oxygenation possible.
  2. Anomalously high recession velocities for the tectonic plates during CE have been observed and could be due to the radial expansion of the Earth lasting about 30 million years which corresponds to the duration of Cambrian explosion. A quantitative estimate for the expansion velocity gives an estimate consistent with the findings. Cambrian explosion would correspond to quantum tunnelling in astrophysical scale and involve "big" state function reductions and a temporary change of the arrow of time. The change of the arrow of time in scale of 30 million years could even allow to understand the plant fossils with age about 600 million years conflicting with the fact that the Cambrian explosion (CE) occurred about 540 million years ago.
  3. The finding that the mantle-core boundary looks like a seafloor having even mountains has a rather convincing explanation in terms of the subduction of tectonic plates, which sink to the mantle. This however inspired the question whether life in underground oceans as porous structures containing water in some exotic form, most naturally the fifth phase of water studied by Pollack playing a key role in the TGD inspired view of biology, could make possible the needed thermal and chemical isolation. Pollack effect could provide this isolation and is certainly needed even if the temperature of the underground ocean is not far from the physiological temperature.

    Assuming that the Sun was faint so that the temperature at the surface of Earth was below the freezing point, one ends up with conflict with the isotopic determination of the temperature giving a temperature of oceans slightly higher than the temperature 38 C above which marine invertebrates cannot survive. The temperature about 30 degrees allows life but this requires a slightly lower amount of O18 isotope than prevailing in the recent oceans. The paradox can be solved if the warm water originated from underground oceans and mixed with the non-oxygenated water (or actually ice) at the surface of Earth so that the isotopic fraction was reduced. The optimal situation for life would have been at depths of order kilometer and one can say that life had no other option than developing underground.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

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